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Live at the Chimurenga Factory

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We remember Nigerian-born writer, Omoseye Bolaji (1964-2022), and his immense contribution to the growth of African literature in South Africa, and particularly in the Free State, where he lived.

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Chimurenganyana: The Fear and Loathing Out of Harare by Dambudzo Marechera (Dec 2021)

by Dambudzo Marechera

“I formed the Harare eye: not just the Harare of the African flats or the Harare of the hotel bars or the shebeens and the kachasu drinkers or the high-density areas. For me the only way to express this Harare is to experiment with all available literary styles and perhaps come to a successful combination. There is no particular Harare psyche or mentality.”

During April 1985 Dambudzo Marechera began work on a book on Harare, inspired in part by the HS Thompson’s gonzo opus on Las Vegas. Writing that shows how the city held him in precarious balance, homeless at home, a black insider on the outside of the outside. At some point he abandoned the project and the pieces lived in the archives, unloved.

The Fear and Loathing Out of Harare is a selection of these never-published essays, in collaboration with the Dambudzo Marechera Trust, with an afterword by writer Tinashe Mushakavanhu and a map-poster of Marechera’s Harare conceived by the Black Chalk & Co collective.

A limited Chimurenganyana edition of The Fear and Loathing Out of Harare is available in print at the Chimurenga Factory, or from our our online store

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Chimurenga and Hangar presented Radio MAC , a program curated by Sonia Vaz Borges and Monica de Miranda – live on PASS 14-21 June 2021.

Radio MAC is a reimagining of the radio organ of the Anti Colonialist Movement (MAC) founded by students and revolutionaries such as Marcelino dos Santos, Mario de Andrade and Aquino de Braganca in 1957 in Paris, in collaboration with Neto, Cabral and other nationalists in Lisbon.

Programming consisted of eight episodes on the role of radio and more broadly, sound, in the African liberation struggle against Portuguese colonialism, along with stories of migration. The constructed dialogues included music, speech, poetry, and performance.

Participants included: Raquel Lima, Telma Tvon, Carla Fernandes, Marinho Pina, Chalo Correia, Galissa, DJ Lucky, and Victor Gama.

Radio MAC is part of Chimurenga’s ongoing research on the aesthetics and politics of radio in Africa’s liberatory struggles.

[Photograph: Mário Soares Foundation / DAC – Amílcar Cabral Documents]


Sónia Vaz Borges is an interdisciplinary militant historian and social-political organizer. She is currently a researcher at Humboldt University Berlin in the History of Education Department and is working on the project “Education for all” with a special focus on Mozambique and the FRELIMO liberation movement, and the Sandinistas revolution in Nicaragua.

Mónica de Miranda  is a Portuguese artist of Angolan origin who lives and works between Lisbon and Luanda. Artist and researcher, her work is based on themes of urban archeology and personal geography. She works in an interdisciplinary way with drawing, installation, photography, film, video and sound, in its expanded forms and within the boundaries between fiction and documentary. She co-founded the Hangar project (Artist Residency Centre, Lisbon, 2014).

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Chimurenganyana: Home Is Where The Music Is by Uhuru Phalafala (September 2021)

“Home is where the music is” is drawn from Keorapetse Kgositsile’s poem “For Hughie Masekela”, dedicated to the South African trumpeter, composer and bandleader. The poem ends with the lines, “This then is the rhythm / and the blues of it / Home is where the music is”. The poem was published in the 1974 collection, The Present Is A Dangerous Place To Live, however it was presented to Masekela earlier. Bra Hugh then recorded a double album titled Home Is Where The Music Is, with artwork by South African abstract expressionist Dumile Feni, released in 1972. The album features the song, “Blues for Huey”, which evokes the lamentation and longing of exile in Kgositsile’s poem, interweaving New York and Maseru, revealing continuities across the Atlantic.

As soundtrack to the writing, Uhuru assembled a sonic documentary, which can be listened to here:

[for track info and credits, check in here]

A limited Chimurenganyana edition of Home Is Where The Music Is is available in print at the Chimurenga Factory, or from our our online store.

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From 5-9 May 2021, Chimurenga’s Pan African Space Station (PASS) landed at Lavoir Moderne Parisien in Goutte d’or, Paris, to imagine, re-examine and re-circulate sonic archives of black radicalism in the francophone world. This session dug into the “soundtrack” (bande-son), an underlying container of information and ideas that is seldom explored on its own terms.

We departed from cinematic practice, specifically films/filmmakers (Julius-Amedee Laou, Elsie Haas, Med Hondo, Kanor sisters, Sarah Maldoror, etc) represented in the printed archive we had recently installed in Centre Pompidou, and expanded the soundtrack beyond the screen to other areas of knowledge production: the street, the club, recording studios, kongossa, live performances, noise, even the magazine page.

We imagined a live in-studio soundtrack that responded to and expanded visual footage from the 2nd Congress of Black Writers and Artists in Rome 1959 – an event charged by the-then process of decolonisation and the unwelcome presence of younger, radical thinkers such as Fanon, Beti, Glissant, Beville and more. We took the cues from Fabienne and Véronique Kanor’s “La noiraude” to explore zouk as aesthetics of black transnationalism – a geography of unauthorised pleasure throughout the 1980s. We listened to Sarah Maldoror’s record collection, and her use of music on film.

In Julius-Amedee Laou’s “Solitaire a micro ouvert”, the brother of a man killed in a racist murder in Paris of the 1980s takes over of a black radio station to address the “community”. In “La Vieille Quimboiseuse et le majordome” he highlights the dialectic between the seen and the heard. We listened to the oral history of “La coordination des femmes noires” that writer Gerty Dambury continually produces; or Gerard Lockel’s development of gro ka moden as decolonial praxis; or the Paris-based afro/astrosonic network documented in the music Jo Maka, Ramadolf, Cheikh Tidiane Fall, Yebga Likoba and more, which not only connects directly to Maldoror’s film “Un dessert pour Constance” but also puts sound to the immigrant struggles of the post-May 68 era. And brought us to the ongoing gentrification and structural violence in Goutte d’or.

We considered Frank Biyong’s retelling of the war of decolonisation in Cameroun in his album “Ibolo Ini”, and more broadly his use of music as site of memorialising; and explored black ecologies through sound.

We presented “Act 2” of Christian Nyampeta’s acclaimed radio-play “The Africans”.

And live performances, talks, screenings, DJ sets. And more.

Recorded sessions from the landing are available for replay via PASS on Mixcloud.

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Chimurenganyana: Even When My Soup-curlers Slur, I Still Keep the Take by Georgia Anne Muldrow (June 2021)

Georgia arrives in the middle of a song. She multiplies there to become singer, instrumentalist, poet, producer, her very presence is lyrical and elides fixed meaning and form. What orbits her work, at the risk of becoming jaded and delirious while circling her innate rhythm in a land that tries to contain its reach, is optimism. Her sound is often that of someone dejected by her own optimism, as if it betrays her reality or turns some purposed doom to triumph before it can strike. Do you ever check on your well adjusted, optimistic friends, the ones who always make you feel a little better just from being around them for a few hours? Those who give the most and make it seem effortless are often the most neglected. Their shadows become weapons of potential self-sabotage because no one notices that umbra looming beneath so much shine and defiance. Here we get to bask in such a shadow as if we have earned access to the part of the music that will never be on the market, that refuses the transactional, that confesses ahead of the beat, unmarks the beast, achieves true self-actualization.

(from the preface by Harmony Holiday)

Also featuring drawings by Yaoundé Olu.

A limited Chimurenganyana edition of Even When My Soup-Curlers Slur, I Still Keep the Take is available in print at the Chimurenga Factory, or from our our online store.

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imagi-nation nwar – genealogies of the black radical imagination in the francophone world

de-composed, an-arranged and re-produced by Chimurenga

feat. Mongo Beti & Odile Biyidi’s Peuples Noirs, Peuples Africains; Elsie Haas, Julius-Amédée Laou; Cheikh Anta Diop; FEANF; GONG; Gérard Lockel; Glissant’s IME; Suzanne Roussi; Paul Niger; Andrée Blouin; Maryse Condé; Guinea’s Cultural Revolution; Awa Thiam; Francoise Ega; Yambo Ouologuem; Groupe du 6 Novembre; ACTAF & Revolution Afrique; Med Hondo; Sidney Sokhona; Nicolas Silatsa; Somankidi Coura; Edja Kungali; Sarah Maldoror; Sony Labou Tansi; Madeleine Beauséjour; and many, many more…

New writing by: Michaela Danjé; Hemley Boum; Olivier Marboeuf; Marie-Héléna Laumuno; Amzat Boukari-Yabara; Amandine Nana with Julius-Amédée Laou; Sarah Fila-Bakabadio; Pierre Crépon; DY Ngoy; Dénètem Touam Bona; Christelle Oyiri; Native Maqari; Seumboy Vrainom with Malcom Ferdinand; the “undercommons” collective translation workshop coordinated by Rosanna Puyol (Brook).


To purchase in print or as a PDF head to our online shop,or get copies from your nearest dealer.

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Chimurenganyana: Becoming Kwame Ture by Amandla Thomas-Johnson (Oct 2020)

Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture) was viewed by many during the civil rights struggles of the 1960s as the dashing and eloquent heir to Malcolm X. His call for Black Power and his fiery speeches led to his ascension as the foremost symbol of black militancy. But the threat posed to white America by the triumvirate of Martin Luther King Jr., Stokely Carmichael and Malcolm X would be suppressed as the decade declined to a close. Indeed, X and King would meet death at the escort of gunmen, in ‘65 and ‘68, respectively, and in ‘69, Carmichael would board a plane bound for Guinea, never to return on a permanent basis.

But Kwame Ture lived on for another 30 years and he was as politically active as he had been in the ‘60s. At the time of his death, Ture had become perhaps the foremost Pan-Africanist of his day. He co-founded (with Kwame Nkrumah) and led the All-African People’s Revolutionary Party, arguably the most significant Pan-African political party in its heyday, and he established himself as the leading black advocate for Palestinian rights. Why do we know so little about the last 30 years of his life?

A limited Chimurenganyana edition of Becoming Kwame Ture is available for purchase in print at the Chimurenga Factory, or from our online store. 

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FESTAC 77 BOOK (Oct 2019)

Early in 1977, thousands of artists, writers, musicians, activists and scholars from Africa and the black diaspora assembled in Lagos for FESTAC ’77, the 2nd World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture. With a radically ambitious agenda underwritten by Nigeria’s newfound oil wealth, FESTAC ’77 would unfold as a complex, glorious and excessive culmination of a half-century of transatlantic and pan-Africanist cultural-political gatherings.

As told by Chimurenga, this is the first publication to address the planetary scale of FESTAC alongside the personal and artistic encounters it made possible. Featuring extensive unseen photographic and archival materials, interviews and new commissions, the book relays the stories, words and works of the festival’s extraordinary cast of characters.

With: Wole Soyinka, Léopold Sédar Senghor, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Archie Shepp, Miriam Makeba, Allioune Diop, Jeff Donaldson, Louis Farrakhan, Stevie Wonder, Abdias do Nascimento, Keorapetse Kgositsile, Mario de Andrade, Ted Joans, Nadi Qamar,Carlos Moore, Ayi Kwei Armah, Ama Ata Aidoo, Johnny Dyani, Werewere Liking, Marilyn Nance, Barkley Hendricks, Mildred Thompson, Ibrahim El-Salahi, Jayne Cortez, Atukwei OkaiJonas Gwangwa, Theo Vincent, Lindsay Barrett, Gilberto de la Nuez, Sun Ra and many others.

And featuring new writing from: Akin Adesokan, Moses Serubiri, Harmony Holiday, Semeneh Ayalew, Hassan Musa, Emmanuel Iduma, Michael McMillan, Dominique Malaquais and Cedric Vincent, Molefe Pheto, Ugochukwu-Smooth C. Nzewi, Hermano Penna, Alice Aterianus.

Published by Chimurenga and Afterall Books, in association with Asia Art Archive, the Center for Curatorial Studies, Bard College and RAW Material Company, 2019.

The FESTAC 77 publication is available for purchase through our online shop.

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The most recent episode of Stories About Music in Africa is Monday Blues for Sandile Dikeni

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From Wednesday, 17 – Saturday, 20 February, 2021, Pan African Space Station (PASS) broadcast a daily session, produced for ‘Actions of Art and Solidarity’, a group exhibition curated by Office for Contemporary Art Norway (OCA) in Oslo and organised with Kunstnernes Hus. These PASS transmissions unpacked and expanded stories and research published in the Festac ’77 book in which we revisited the imaginative (im)possibilities of pan African festivals (the PANAFESTs) that took place in the utopian moments of the post-independence era.

Day 1, Wednesday 17 February:
Benin 1897 to Festac 1977, re-membering Erhabor Emokpae.
What are the legacies of Benin 1897? And how did the art of Erhabor Emokpae, designer of Festac’s visual identity, reignite the debate? Considering restitution debates and politics and the significance of Erhabor Emokpae, PASS hosted a conversation featuring Emokpae’s son the visual artist Isaac Emokpae, his granddaughter Ese Otubu, and the late Erhabor Emokpae himself.

Day 2, Thursday 18 February:
Freedom and Control, Technology and Science: a conversation with Arild Boman.
On this day in 1977, Agege Motor Road in Lagos, Fela Kuti’s Kalakuta Republic was infamously rampaged by military police. Arild Boman, a scientist, educator and experimental musician, witnessed the scene while attending Festac as a broadcasting consultant for the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK). In this PASS session we inquired how, with colleagues at the University of Lagos, Boman came to co-produce a remarkable Festac questionnaire and co-organise the Festac ’77 Video Art Workshop.

Day 3, Friday 19 February:
Pan-Africanisms, Afro-Asian movement and Tricontinentalism.
Exploring red and black solidarities, PASS listened to a variety of voices, including Uhuru Phalafala and Christopher Lee, about conferences and festivals, Alex La Guma’s Soviet journeying, the project of Third-Worldism, and networks of writers and artistic groups culturally working for liberation.

Day 4, Saturday 20 February:
Amandla! Power to the people and poets: a conversation with Lindiwe Mabuza.
PASS welcomed an ambassador of cultural-politics, scholar-poet Lindiwe Mabuza to share stories of her consciousness-raising and activism in the USA, then at Festac ’77 and as the ANC’s Chief Representative in Sweden where she helped conduct the movements of Amandla Cultural Group.

(Photo from New Directions magazine)

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QAMATA PULA — an ancestral invocation

iPhupho L’ka Biko and Pan African Space Station presented QAMATA PULA, an ancestral invocation collapsing past, present and future, over three days at the Chimurenga Factory (157 Victoria Rd, Woodstock, Cape Town).

iMbewu / Seeds – Thursday, 3rd December

The many ancestors and living ones who preceded us planted seeds that allow us to dream different dreams. We pay tribute to the likes of Miriam Makeba, Madala Kunene, Busi Mhlongo, Stimela, Kutu and others who created conditions for us to become and overcome

iNhlabathi / Soil – Friday, 4th December

Because the past and present are always in conversation, we understand that we come from a lineage that demands from us responsibility. Joined by Cape Town-based artists, we interpret and share Biko’s dream,

uMthimkhulu / Tree – Saturday, 5th December Here is a tree rooted in Afrikan soil. It belongs to us, and those who come after us. On this sonic journey to our desired and foreseen future, we share with you the divine nectar of the tree’s

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In conversation with Omoseye Bolaji

In the Free State, the most important and pivotal figure in local black literature has been OMOSEYE BOLAJI. Pule Lechesa spoke with him about his awards, general grassroots writing in the Free State, and Black Writing in general.

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From 23-25 October 2019, Chimurenga’s Pan African Space Station (PASS) at Arnold and Sheila Aronson Galleries, New York City, explored three narratives related to the participation of African American artists and intellectuals at FESTAC ’77, the 2nd World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture, held in Lagos in 1977.

Wed 23 October 2019, 4pm – 7pm: Sun Ra Arkestra and the jazz avant-garde at FESTAC

As revealed in Chimurenga’s recent publication which compiles stories from/about FESTAC, Sun Ra’s Astro/Afro-mysticism was initially rejected by an important section among FESTAC participants – including some members of the US contingent. In collaboration with trumpet and composer Ahmed Abdullah, and trombonist and composer Craig Harris, both Arkestra members who formed part of Sun Ra’s group at FESTAC, we listened to the Sun Ra Arkestra performances (and other free jazz musicians such as Milford Graves) in Lagos. The musicians were joined by photographer Calvin Reid (who documented the Sun Ra Lagos sessions).

Thurs 24 October 2019, 4pm – 6pm: Black Women Collectives at FESTAC

Stories of the Black Arts Movement are often dominated by iconic black male poets. However Black Women Collectives were represented at FESTAC via their members:  Alice Walker, Audre Lorde, Louise Meriwether, from the writers group The Sisterhood; and Charlotte Ka Richardson, Faith Ringgold, Valerie Maynard and many more from the visual arts group Where We At.

In her reflection on black women’s collectives and FESTAC, poet, choreographer and myth-scientist Harmony Holiday asks:  Can we override those epigenetic tendencies rooted in generational trauma, by simply gathering and sharing ideas on our own terms, or is it too late for that pure and reckless kind of love, that troubled and troubadour Black love?… Can a festival turn into eternal solidarity?

Harmony shared her piece in the PASS studio in the company of Charlotte Ka, Valerie Maynard and Marilyn Nance.

Friday 25 October 2019, 3pm – 5pm: Black photography and the visual memory of FESTAC

FESTAC was mainly ignored by the US mainstream media – reporting and analysis from media outlets such as New York Times and Washington Post, among others, focused more on lamenting the absence of whites and poor organization of the event than covering the month-long programme featuring original productions by some 30,000 artists from all over the Black world. A visual memory of FESTAC exists primarily through the perseverance of independent photographers such as Marilyn NanceCalvin ReidKofi MoyoBob Crawford, among others, as well as the coverage produced by black media outlets such as Ebony.

Nance, Reid and other black photographers who documented FESTAC joined us in the PASS studio.

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Who Killed Kabila I

From December 13 – 17, 2017, Chimurenga installed a library of books, films, and visual material mapping extensive research that ask “Who Killed Kabila“, as the starting point for an in-depth investigation into power, territory and the creative imagination. This book catalogues all the research material produced and collected for this installation.

The equation is simple: the length of a Congolese president’s reign is proportional to his/her willingness to honour the principle that the resources of the Congo belong to others. Mzee Kabila failed.

Who killed Kabila is no mystery either. It is not A or B or C. But rather A and B and C. All options are both true and necessary – it’s the coming together of all these individuals, groups and circumstances, on one day, within the proliferating course of the history, that does it.

So telling this story isn’t merely be a matter of presenting multiple perspectives but rather of finding a medium able to capture the radical singularity of the event in its totality, including each singular, sometimes fantastical, historical fact, rumour or suspicion.

We’ve heard plenty about the danger of the single story – we want to explore its power. We take inspiration from the Congolese musical imagination, its capacity for innovation and its potential to allow us to think “with the bodily senses, to write with the musicality of one’s own flesh” (Mbembe).

The catalogue is now available for sale in the Chimurenga shop.

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Achal Prabhala goes to the heart of the Free State literary renaissance with the “deliberately mysterious and prodigiously talented” Omoseye Bolaji.

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From 11-13 April 2019, the Pan African Space Station landed in the stolen and occupied land of the Boonwurrung (of the Kulin nation), in what is known today as Australia.

Invited by Monash University Museum of Art (MUMA) as part of an exhibition entitled Shapes of KnowledgePASS explored “Black Australia” historical and current connections to pan Africanism and their participation in FESTAC ’77 – the 2nd World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture which took place in Lagos in 1977.

We give thanks to our collaborators Sista Zai Zanda, who presented a daily show exploring different perspectives on community making in Australia for Africans in collaboration with Naomi VelaphiZiimusic and N’fa Jones; rapper and vocalist Lady Lashpioneering Aboriginal reggae artist Bart Willoughby; composer, singer, trumpeter Olugbade Okunade, featuring musician and producer Enoch Ogiemwanre; multidisciplinary artist Torika Bolatagici who installed her ongoing library project The Community Reading Room; Stani Goma for “Music of the Black Struggle in Australia”, in collaboration with Jason Tamiru.

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Chimurenga returned to Paris for a 5-day intervention and installation at La Colonie. From December 13 – 17, 2017, we installed a live radio station and a research library, and hosted talks, screenings and performances that asked ‘Who Killed Kabila?’, as the starting point for an in-depth investigation into power, territory and the creative imagination.

The equation was simple: the length of a Congolese president’s reign is proportional to his/her willingness to honour the principle that the resources of the Congo belong to others. Mzee Kabila failed.

Who killed Kabila is no mystery either. It is not A or B or C. But rather A and B and C. All options are both true and necessary – it’s the coming together of all these individuals, groups and circumstances, on one day, within the proliferating course of the history, that does it.

So telling this story isn’t merely be a matter of presenting multiple perspectives but rather of finding a medium able to capture the radical singularity of the event in its totality, including each singular, sometimes fantastical, historical fact, rumour or suspicion.

We’ve heard plenty about the danger of the single story – we want to explore its power. We take inspiration from the Congolese musical imagination, its capacity for innovation and its potential to allow us to think “with the bodily senses, to write with the musicality of one’s own flesh” (Mbembe).

At La ColonieChimurenga installed a library that included books, films, and visual material mapping extensive research that investigates history and changing formations of rule and accumulation, space and territory, allegiance, citizenship, and sovereignty, and the African imagination in music and writing.

Each day, the Pan Africa Space Station, broadcast live with a programme of interviews, discussions and performances by collaborators from around the world including musicians, DJs, journalists, writers, political theorists, thinkers and filmmakers. After the event, the sounds and images generated in this process will contribute towards a special edition of our Pan African broadsheet, the Chronic.

Participants included Dominique MalaquaisParselelo KantaiPhilou LozoulouYvonne Adhiambo OwuorBarly Baruti, Victor GamaLulendo MvuluDéo NamujimboLuigi ElonguiMaurice PotoMengi MassambaHugo MendezJihan El-TahriBintou SimporeMartin MeissonnierPaulo InglêsFranck BiyongRay LemaBrice AhounouNadine FidjiSpiluluArnaud ZaitjmanJulie PeghiniSinzo AanzaKoba LubakiPercy ZvomuyaBoddhi SatvaAbdourahman WaberiAntoine Vumilia MuhindoSam Tshintu & AcademiaTrésor KibangulaBullitKovo NSondéRokia Bamba-MennessierEmmanuel NashiFranck LeiboviciJulien SeroussiDaniel KalinakiPascale OboloKivu RuhorahozaJacques Goba, Mo Laudi, Michelange Quay.

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Chimurenganyana: Rumblin’ by Dominique Malaquais (June 2012)

A text and image reflection on the “Rumble in the Jungle”, the Muhammad Ali / George Foreman boxing match held in Kinshasa in 1974. Norman Mailer started The Fight, Dominique Malaquais punched back. Artwork by Kakudji.

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In 1996, Keziah Jones visited Kalakuta Republic every day for a week to interview Fela Anikulapo Kuti. On the fifth day, after waiting six hours, Keziah got to speak with Fela, who he remarked kept you in “constant and direct eye contact” and spoke “in short bursts of baritone.”

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Thath’i Cover Okestra LIVE at Guga S’thebe


“The second installment of Thath’i Cover Okestra with the Pan African Space Station was, like it’s Johannesburg predecessor: a day-time concert, and in the same way, a child, woman and man family affair. The sound that came out of Guga S’thebe Arts and Culture Centre in Langa, Cape Town was now-now, an old-school kwaito of the future. What I saw and certainly experienced was an open, inter-generational classroom ruled by boogieing and screaming teacher-learners of all shade and size.” – Ra, Rangoato Hlasane, catalyst (with Keleketla! Library accomplice Malose Malahlela) for this coming together.

On 4 November 2012, Pan African Space Station presented Thath’i Cover Okestra LIVE at Guga’ Sthebe Theatre in Langa.

Directed by Bokani Dyer (piano) with Masello Motanapitsi Ya Legola (vocals), Shane Cooper (synths), Tito Zwane (bass guitar), Tiko Ngobeni (percussion, didge and toys), Zweli Mthembu (guitar), Simphiwe Tshabalala (drums) and Lee Thomson (trumpet).

A love letter to kwaito. Revisit the performance here.

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From 9 – 12 November, the Pan African Space Station (PASS) landed in The National Gallery of Zimbabwe (NGZ) in the centre of Harare.

In collaboration with visual artist Kudzanai Chiurai, who launched his first ever solo exhibition in his home country titled ‘We Need New Names’, Chimurenga installed the PASS studio as a public research platform towards a Zimbabwe focused issue of the Chimurenga Chronic.

Looking into the inventions of Zimbabwe, the programming examined music as the paradigm through which the country and region’s political history is told and archived. Whatever Zimbabwe is, and is becoming, already exists in the sound-worlds produced in the region. PASS in Harare invited musicians, artists, writers, cultural producers and rebels based in Harare and beyond in studio to uncover these worlds, including:

Dwayne Kapula is a Zimbabwean DJ and vinyl archivist based in Johannesburg.
Irene Staunton and Njabu Mbono are publishers at the Zimbabwean publishing house Weaver Press.
Joyce Jenje is a Zimbabwean writer and ethnomusicologist.
The Monkey Nuts are an experimental music performance and production collective.
Netsayi Chigwendere is a Zimbabwean composer and vocalist.
Robert Machiri is a music researcher and archivist based in Johannesburg.
Rumbi Katedza is a Zimbabwean filmmaker and radio producer based in Harare.
Sbu ‘The General’ Nxumalo is a writer and artist based in Johannesburg.
Tinashe Mushakavanhu is a writer and editor based in Harare.
Tinofireyi Zhou (aka Aero5ol) is an artist and poet based in Harare.
Virginia Phiri is Zimbabwean musician from the iconic Zim-rock group Wells Fargo and many more.

Listen to recordings of some of these sessions at our Mixcloud page.

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Chimurenganyana: In Search of Yambo Ouologuem by Christopher Wise (June 2012)

Yambo Ouologuem, the Malian author of Le devoir de violence and other literary works, has been shrouded in mystery since he disappeared from the West, effectively turning his back on literature. Christopher Wise goes in search.

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Notes for an Oratorio on small things that fall

Aditi Hunma reviews the launch of Notes for an Oratorio on Small Things That Fall, the latest offering from Ari Sitas

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Netsayi & Black Pressure live at Slave Church, Cape Town

The PASS arkives (re)awaken with a performance from Netsayi and her Black Pressure band. Doreen Gaura takes us back:

Just a little over 10 minutes into the show, she removed her high heeled shoes and jokingly feigned regret for the action as she apologised to the audience, suggesting that she’d only worn them for our sake. It was at that moment that I realised that I was in the presence of spirit and realness and I was in for a great night. Zimbabwean electro – folk band Netsayi & Black Pressure, graced Cape Town with their electro-meets-traditional energy when they performed at the Slave Church on October 5th, 2012 and I had the pleasure of attending their gig. I am generally not the most punctual of humans and that night was no exception as I arrived just as the show was about to start and my waiting friends and I had to hustle for some seats in the gallery as all the ones downstairs were already occupied. This little bit of misfortune later turned into a blessing as my positioning at the far right end of the back row of the gallery made it possible for me to jive away to the band’s more jivable tunes without really disturbing everyone else who chose to remain seated for some weird reason. After all, it wasn’t that kind of party.

The band’s presentation of their individual and collective gifts and offerings was very memorable; from Ray’s tenor/soprano marimba and bass vocal awesomeness to Matthew’s mad skills on the baritone marimba and electric guitar to Ngoni’s badassery on the ngoma and drums to Netsayi herself’s captivating voice. Their performance also featured South African trombonist and singer, Siya Makuzeni, whose beautiful voice added a Xhosa flavour to the mostly Shona and English set. Through their music, Netsayi & Black Pressure comment on various realities, issues, joys and struggles in people’s everyday lives, mostly Zimbabwean people, both in Zimbabwe and in the Zimbabwean diaspora. A natural conversationalist, Netsayi kept the performance interactive by regularly engaging with the audience between songs and encouraging them to interact with her, using her dry sense of humour as a tool to do so.

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From 4 October – 26 November 2017, the Pan African Space Station (PASS)  broadcast LIVE from Museo Tamayo, Mexico City. For 8 weeks, the PASS studio functioned as “ecole du soir” (evening school) – a meeting place, a classroom, and laboratory where different worlds converged. The radio programming explored the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana, contemporary South Atlantic exchanges and Afro-Mexican cultures – a public research platform toward a forthcoming edition of the Chimurenga Chronic on these themes.

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Chimurenganyana: The Making of Mannenberg by John Edwin Mason (June 2012)

On a winter’s day in 1974, a group of musicians led by Abdullah Ibrahim entered a recording studio in the heart of Cape Town, and emerged, hours later, having changed South African music, forever. John Edwin Mason pens notes on the making of the icon and the anthem.

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Conversations with Christian Nyampeta, featuring Hannah Black, Sasha Bonét, Natacha Nsabimana, Olu Oguibe and Emmanuel Olunkwa.
Live on PASS – 24-26 May 2022 – from 6pm

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From 17 -19 February 2017, the Pan African Space Station landed in the library of Contemporary Image Collective (CiC) in downtown Cairo.

PASS in Cairo featured live readings, performances and conversations with Chimurenga’s collaborators in the city, including Hassan Khan,Amanda KMMohamed AbdelkarimAmado AlfadniAdham HafezShatha Al DeghadyMagdy El ShafeeAmira Hanafi and more.

Recorded sessions from the landing are available for replay via PASS on Mixcloud.

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The Forest and The Zoo Lives On

Chimurenga Magazine launched its new issue, the Chimurenga Chronic, a speculative newspaper set in May 2008, with a Chronic Library exhibition and a live music event in Johannesburg from 19-26 October 2011.

Under the direction of composer/trumpeter Marcus Wyatt, some of Johannesburg’s leading jazz musicians explored Chimurenga Chronic themes such as history, exile and memory in their tribute to the freedom and prolific musical imagination of South African jazz legends, the Blue Notes, on Friday, 21 October 2011. Chimurenga editor Ntone Edjabe and DJs Nok and Soul Diablo were on the decks, selecting gems from the Blue Notes’ and Brotherhood of Breath’s discography and more.

Check out the video from the event featuring The Blue Notes Tribute Orkestra.

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From 11 -15 December 2016, the Pan African Space Station (PASS) landed in Amsterdam, transmitting live from the OBA Central Library.  The PASS live studio featured a 5-day programme as an experiment in speaking, listening, playing, partying and community; as a performance and exhibition space; a research platform and living archive. Programmed and performed by Chimurenga, PASS in Amsterdam featured collaborations with artists, filmmakers, writers, musicians and rebels whose practices draw from and respond to a variety of contexts; to prompt us, through performance, conversation and other forms, to imagine how worlds connect.

We thank all involved for improvising and collaborating with us to make this landing happen. Collaborators include ‘Black Stereo’ (Jimmy Rage and Bamba Al Mansour), Chandra Frank, Faustin Linyekula and Jose Pereelanga paying tribute to Franco, Amal Alhaag and Maria Guggenbichler reminding you to ‘Count Your Blessings’, ‘Protest Pop’ with Neo MuyangaEm’kal EyongapkaKodwo Eshun further entangling our imaginations, Aurelie Lierman and many many more.

To revisit moments from this landing, please visit our Mixcloud. Here’s more about those who contributed to PASS in Amsterdam:

Adeola Enigbokan is an artist and urban theorist based in Amsterdam.

Amal Alhaag and Maria Guggenbichler run DJ workshops for women as part of Side Room, a nomadic meeting room for intersectional feminist and anti-colonial practices.

Akinbode Akinbiyi is a photographer living in Berlin.

Angele Etoundi Essamba is a photographer living and working in Amsterdam. She is also the artistic director for IAM (Intense Art Magazine)

Anna Alix Koffi lives and works in Paris. She is the founder and editor-in-chief of OFF The Walla book review dedicated to photography

Ato Malinda is a performance artist who lives and works in Nairobi.

Apichatpong Weerasethakul is a filmmaker and principal Prince Claus Fund laureate of 2016.

Aurelie Lierman is a sound artist, radio producer, vocalist based in Amsterdam.

DJ CARISTA  is an Amsterdama-based radio host and selector at Red Light Radio.

Chandra Frank is a writer and curator living in Amsterdam. She works on black feminist genealogies and the politics of pleasure and resistance.

Charl Landvreugd is a Rotterdam-based visual and performance artist and curator.

Em’kal Eyongakpa is based in South West Cameroon and Amsterdam. He works at itinerant with video, photography, sculpture, sound, text and performance.

Faut Haut is an avant-pop band based in Amsterdam.

Faustin Linyekula is a dancer, choreographer and founder of Studios Kabako in Kisangani.

Femi Dawkins (a.k.a. Jimmy Rage) is a visual artist, poet and musician who lives in Amsterdam.

Frank Biyong is a musician, composer and producer who lives in Yaounde and Paris. He founded and leads the groups Massak and Afroelectric Orchestra.

Hodan WarsameTirza Balk and Kahya Engler are activists based in Amsterdam who produce radio shows, as well as host talks and workshops as part of Redmond Amsterdam.

INSAYNO (In Nasty Situations All You Need: Optimism) is a rapper and spoken-word artist based in Amsterdam.

Jeannine Valeriano is a singer, writer and spoken-word artist based in Amsterdam.

Jorgen Unom JG is a singer and poet living in Amsterdam.

DJ Jumanne aka J4 is the founder of, the oldest website dedicated to hip hop cultures on the continent.

King Shiloh Sound System is a roots reggae & dub sound system working from Amsterdam.

Kodwo Eshun is a British-Ghanaian writer, theorist, filmmaker and co-founder of The Otolith Group.

Kunle Adeyemi is an architect and urban theorist, and the founder of Amsterdam-based NLÉWORKS Architects.

Nana Adusei-Poku is curator, writer and research professor in Visual Culture at Rotterdam University

Neo Muyanga is a musician and composer. He is the co-founder of the Pan African Space Station.

New Urban Collective is an activist collective of based in Amsterdam.

NIC Kay is a performance artist whose work involves sculpture, video, sound, installation, collage and printmaking.

N’gone Fall is an independent curator.

DJ Orpheu The Wizard is the co-founder of Red Light Radio, an Amsterdam-based online radio station.

Philou Louzolo is a DJ and producer based in Amsterdam.

Sammy Baloji is a photographer living in Brussels and Lubumbashi.

Vo Trong Nghia is an architect and Prince Claus Fund laureate of 2016.

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Georgia Anne Muldrow & Declaime LIVE at Guga S’thebe, Langa

Listen to Georgia Anne Muldrow and Dudley ‘Declaime’ Perkins, recorded live at the Guga S’thebe, Langa on 2 October, 2010.

American funk-fusion chanteuse Georgia Anne Muldrow is, to have Mos Def tell it, ‘like Flack, Nina Simone, Ella, she’s something else. She’s like religion.’ Muldrow is a seeker, a journeywoman unafraid to chart new musical territories. Travelling side by side with soulmate, influential, purposeful and prolific executive producer/emcee/visual artist Dudley Perkins (Declaime), they forge the missing links between beat konductas like Madlib and Dilla and the early-1970s free soul and jazz pioneers like Pharaoh Sanders.


Hip-hop rhythms are rewired, cracked up by odd meters and halting beats that bleed over improvisational forays, corrupted with tinges of electro, R&B, soul, and modern laptop mayhem.

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From 23 – 26 June 2016, PASS descended on Freedom Park in Lagos, as part of Goethe Institute’s Lagos_Live 2016 festival. The PASS Lagos sessions brought together a broad spectrum of artists, performers, writers and musicians, whose practices draw from a variety of contexts, to participate through conversations, performances and happenings that provoke us to rethink about our histories and to speculate on our futures through artistic and cultural practice.

The PASS Lagos sessions were part of Chimurenga’s ongoing exploration into the festival as political act – from the “festival decade” of 1966-77 when pan African festivals in Dakar, Algiers, Lagos and Kinshasa functioned as laboratories for the development of new, continent-wide politics and cultures, and presented a shared vision of an Africa yet to come.

The PASS Lagos sessions were programmed by Chimurenga, in collaboration with Dagga Tolar with Ajengule House of PoetrySalam Salam Agidigbe Band, Ade Bantu, Jahman Anikulapo with Benson Idonije, Molara Wood, Temitope Kogbe, Cosmic Yoruba with Dammy Busari and Ashiwel, Tamerri Collective, Ameru JahFlame, Tam Fiofori with Funsho Ogundipe and Ayetoro, Ore Disu with Olamide Udo-Udoma, Deji Toye with Segun Adefila and Wole Oguntokfun, Akintayo Abodunrin, Qudus Onikeku with Tunde Jegede and Efe PaulOris Aigbokhaevbolo and Dami Ajayi, Jumoke Verrisimo with Awoko, and many, many more.

To listen to recordings from PASS Lagos, visit our Mixcloud.

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Dr Philip Tabane & Malombo LIVE at St George’s Cathedral, Cape Town

Listen to enigmatic, innovative seer and composer-band leader Doctor Philip Tabane’s set, recorded live at St. George’s Cathedral on September 30, 2010


The Dr is a giant in South African music. Since the early 60s he has forged a musical path that defies boundaries, channelling the voices of his ancestors, the Malombo spirits of Venda, through rich polyrhythmic African beats and alchemic free jazz improvisation.

While Tabane has toured internationally, playing with jazz greats like Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock and Charles Mingus, his home is in South Africa with Malombo. Here, working with an ever-shifting cast of musicians, his Malombo Jazz Makers, the master lets loose with intricate improvisation and free-form soloing that trace the linage of gospel, blues and funk back to its African roots.

But Malombo is not just music. It’s an individualised spirit force that uses song and dance as a vehicle of expression. It’s Tabane eschewing traditional cord structures as he fashions harmonious sound around the innuendo of his voice. It’s the Doctor, dressed in snakeskin trousers, injecting his Gibson hollow-body with an insatiable sense of discovery, coaxing free form sounds by hitting the strings or sparking otherworldly melodies from feather light plucks. It’s energy music, a potent life force that reignites black consciousness and speaks to the soul while insisting you get up and dance.

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Can a past that the present has not yet caught up with be summoned to haunt the present as an alternative?

In April and May 2016, Chimurenga’s installation Chimurenga Library and pop-up radio station Pan African Space Station infiltrated the Kallio Library in Helsinki.

The intervention was a continuation of Chimurenga’s ongoing exploration into the utopian moment shortly after African independences, when a series of Pan African festivals staged in Dakar, Algiers, Lagos and Kinshasa functioned as laboratories for the development of new, continent-wide politics and cultures. FESTAC 77 (Lagos 1977) and its predecessors, The First World Festival of Negro Arts (Dakar 1966), the First Pan-African Festival (Algiers 1969) and Zaire 74 (Kinshasa 1974) presented a shared vision of an Africa yet to come.

This Africa was as much a geographic reality as it was a construct, a continent whose boundaries shift according to the prevailing configurations of global racial identities and power. Building on their previous research platforms staged in Cape Town, Lagos, San Francisco, Sharjah, Paris, London and New York (among others), Chimurenga will remap these Pan-Africanist imaginations and cultural visions in Helsinki. What is important here is not the reiteration of the actual past, but the persistence of what never actually happened, but might have.

The project was part of the Remembering Silences season curated by Ahmed Al-Nawas.

To listen to recordings from PASS in Helsinki, visit our Mixcloud.

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Chimurenganyana: In Defence of the Films We Have Made by Odia Ofeimun (2009)

Odia Ofeimun is one of Nigeria’s foremost poets and political activists, and the author of the acclaimed collection The Poet Lied. Ofeimun was at one time the personal secretary of the Nigerian politician, Chief Obafemi Awolowo. He was also a member of the radical collective of The News, a weekly newspaper, which contributed to the downfall of Nigeria’s last dictatorship.

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Selected and mixed by Robert Machiri

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Kyle Shepherd – LIVE at St Georges Cathedral, Cape Town

Listen to the jazz pianist and composer’s trio set, recorded live at St. George’s Cathedral on 30 September 2010.

Kyle Shepherd’s music displays a timelessness that challenges musical dichotomies. A skilled jazz composer, bandleader and pianist, he roots his sound in unique rhythms, harmonies and melodic devices of Cape Town and South Africa. But he’s unafraid to chart new territories, teaming up with fellow young jazz guns Shane Cooper (double bass) and Jonno Sweetman (drums) to fearlessly blaze a trail through everything from full-on free jazz improv to experiments with global roots music, slam poetic and more. In Shepherd’s hands, everything from Afrikaans volksliedjies and Muslim calls to prayer, to goema grooves, the hymns of a dozen different community churches and Xhosa melodies are reworked in a sonic space that’s far beyond the original contexts but also outside of jazz as we know it. As the doyen of South African jazz scribes Gwen Ansell points out: this is music that lives in the jazz world but is never imprisoned by it.

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From 11 to 15 November 2015, the Chimurenga Library hosted PASS with a live broadcasting programme of music, interviews, and events with Chimurenga collaborators in New York, including musicians, journalists, writers, curators, and filmmakers. The live broadcast studio functioned amidst an installation that brought together pop-up stores that experiment with trade, informal economies, aesthetics and body language, music and spoken word, mobility and infrastructure.

Working with collaborators such as Brooklyn-based African Record Centre and Yoruba Book Center (established 1971); artist and educator Nontsikelelo Mutiti, setup an African hair braiding salon;  and poet, choreographer, and Afrosonics archivist Harmony Holiday, ideas, thinking, and debate moved fluidly between events, transactions, broadcasts, conversations, music and records, publications, archive material, services, and objects.

Participants in the PASS program included: South African composer Neo MuyangaAfrica is a CountryHisham Aidi, the author of Rebel Music: Race, Empire and the New Muslim Youth Culture; Moroccan poet Omar Berrada; Cuban-American artist and writer Coco Fusco; curator and choreographer Rashida Bumbray (in conversation with African Arts Festival in Brooklyn); poet, fiction writer, and playwright Rashidah Ismaili AbuBakr; Somali novelist Abdi Latif Ega; journalist and broadcaster Giovanni Russonello; and photographer Marilyn Nance.

To listen to recordings from PASS New York, visit our Mixcloud.

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The Chronic (August 2013)

This print edition is a 48-page broadsheet, packaged together with the 72-page Chronic Books supplement.

Writers in the broadsheet include Jon SoskePaula AkugizibweYves MintoogueAdewale Maja-PearceParsalelo KantaiFred Moten & Stefano HarneyCedric VincentDeji ToyeDerin AjaoTony MochamaNana Darkoa Sekyiamah,Agri IsmaïlLindokuhle NkosiBongani Kona,  Stacy Hardy, Emmanuel Induma, Ugochukwu-Smooth Nzewi, Lolade AyewudiSimon Kuper and many others.

The  Chronic Books supplement is a self help guide on reading and writing, with contributions by Dave MckenzieAkin AdekosanFiston Nasser Mwanza, Yemisi OgbeVivek NyaranganPeter EnahoroTolu OgunlesiElnathan John,Rustum KozainOlufemi TerryAryan KaganofRustum KozainHarmony HolidaySean O’TooleGwen Ansell,Binyavanga Wainaina and more.

To purchase in print or as a PDF head to our online shop,or get copies from your nearest dealer.

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Chimurenganyana: Variations of the Beautiful in the World of Congolese Sounds by Achille Mbembe (2009)

Achille Mbembe is a research professor in history and politics at the University of the Witwatersrand and a senior researcher at WISER (Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research). He is the winner of the 2006 Bill Venter/Altron Award for his book On the Postcolony (University of California Press, 2001).

Lenwo Jean Abou Bakar Depara, known as Depara (1928-1997), was one of the leading documentarirts of Kinshasa’s post-independence social scene, and the official photographer to the Zairian singer Franco.

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Brice Wassy LIVE at Albert Hall


Listen to  legendary Camerounian drummer/percussionist Brice Wassy’s Trio performance, recorded live at the Albert Hall on October 1 2010

Known as the ‘King of 6/8 Rhythm,’ Camerounian drummer/percussionist Brice Wassy has been a centrifugal force in African music for the past four decades. The former bandleader for Manu Dibango and Salif Keita, he has worked with Miriam Makeba, Mabi Thobejane, Madala Kunene, Toure Kunda, Moses Molelekwa, and Busi Mhlongo, as well as the likes of French jazz violinist Jean-Luc Ponty, Cuban percussionist Changuito, and Brazilian percussionist Airto Moreira.

Credentials aside, Wassy is a formidable talent who deserves to be listen to on his own terms. His music is a full-frontal rhythmic attack profoundly rooted in Africa, but opened to all genres. Bringing together jazz and Afro-pop, he mixes improvisation with sophisticated compositional imagination; elasticity and experimentation with timbre and harmony; instruments new and old. As Fela Kuti once put it, Wassy has ‘opened our minds with the militancy of his message and our hearts to the rhythms of Afrobeat.’

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Borrowing its name and image from township slang for black youth who rode the overcrowded African sections of the racially segregated commuter trains by hanging onto the outside or sitting on the roofs, Staffrider had two main objectives: to provide publishing opportunities for community-based organizations and young writers, graphic artists and photographers; and to oppose officially sanctioned state and establishment culture.

Produced by the same Durban “moment” that saw Steve Biko begin the South African Students Association, Staffrider had a view of literature with a small “I”: it’s base was popular rather than elite and it sought to provide an autobiography of experience in its witness of daily black life in South Africa. The magazine’s nonracial policy and choice of English as a non-ethnic mode of communication attracted a cross-section of writers, artists and other contributors to the magazine. Debates around Staffrider‘s “self-editing” editorial policy were ongoing and the magazine eventually adopted quality control measures under the editorship of Chris van Wyk. But the magazine’s early flexibility ensured that the work of previously unpublished writers and artists appeared alongside that of many South African notables including Nadine Gordimer, Lionel Abrahams, Rose Zwi, and Mtutuzeli Matshoba.

A Film by Khulile Nxumalo & Tracey Rose

“Here platform politics rhythmically play out the politics of the land; white against black, rich against poor, workers against bosses, people against machines. But the staffriders lived and died in that little space between train and platform, between roles.A split second of misreckoning and it’s all over. Here timing is a matter of life and death. “

Of “Brothers with Perfect Timing” – An Essay by Mike Abraham

” The resonance of such a simple idea is almost impossible to recapture now, but in the demented, divided space of apartheid it was bracing. All the other borders the magazine crossed between fiction and autobiography, written and spoken word, lyrical flight and social documentary rest on that first idealistic gesture. The magazine belongs to all who live in it.”

Staffrider – An Essay by Ivan Vladislavić

“Famed, Nobel laureates, wilful amnesiacs, first millionaires, years soweto’s only legit nightclub, the super-astral, the subterranean, original spot-runners, groaners & croakers, mass child-murderers, priests pimping for more than just Jesus, blades having dice & eyes vie for space in the dust between the intestines & the worms… boots squashing all… muddy beginnings, those… Call Me Not a Man, the searing bleeding cry of a book was titled… chopped & cut up bits first floated to surface in Staffrider.”

Staffriding the Frontline – An Essay by Lesego Rampolokeng

traduction française par Maymoena Hallett

Empruntant son nom et son image de l’argot du township pour les jeunes qui voyageaient dans les sections africaines bondées des trains racialement ségrégués, se pendant aux portes ou s’asseyant sur les toits, les deux objectifs principaux de Staffriderétaient: de fournir des opportunités de publication aux organisations de communauté et aux jeunes écrivains, graphistes et photographes ; et d’officiellement opposer l’état sanctionné et la culture d’établissement.

Produit par le même ‘moment’ sur Durban qui vit Steve Biko commencer la South African Students Association, Staffrider avait un point de vue de la littérature avec un petit ‘l’: sa base était populaire plutôt qu’élitiste et cherchait à pourvoir une autobiographie d’expériences dans son témoignage de la vie de tous les jours des noirs en Afrique du Sud. La politique non raciale du magazine et le choix de l’anglais comme mode de communication non ethnique attira toutes sortes d’écrivains, d’artistes et autres contributeurs. Les débats autour de la politique éditoriale ‘d’édition par soi-même’é taient constants et le magazine finit par adopter des mesures de contrôle de qualitésous la direction de Chris van Wyk. Mais la flexibilité des débuts du magazine garantit que des écrivains ou artistes qui n’avaient jamais été publiés parurent aux côtés d’éminents Sud-Africains tels Nadine Gordimer, Lionel Abrahams, Rose Zwi, et Mtutuzeli Matshoba.


Mothobi Mutloatse, Mike Kirkwood, Kay Hassan, Njabulo Ndebele, Achmat Dangor, Paul Weinberg, Mafika Gwala, George Hallet, Mzwakhe Nhlabatsi, Sam Nhlengetwa, Malopoets, Es’kia Mphahlele, Kelwyn Sole, Chris van Wyk, Andries Oliphant,Thami Mnyele, William Kentridge, Gerard Sekoto


  • The Classic (1970)
  • Pen Johannesburg (1978)
  • Wietie (1980)
  • Botsotso (1994)


  • Staffrider on Wikipedia
  • Ten Years of Staffrider, Oliphant, A. and Vladislavic, I. (eds.), Raven Press: Johannesburg, 1988.
  • Oliphant, Andries. Staffrider Magazine and Popular History: The Opportunities and Challenges of Personal Testimony. Temple University Press: Johannesburg, 1991.
  • Gardiner, Michael. South African Literary Magazines, 1956-1978. Warren Siebrits Modern and Contemporary Art: Johannesburg, 2004.
  • “Rose Zwi in conversation with Mothobi Mutloatse,” Interview conducted 09-09-2006.
  • Gwala, Mafika. “Writing as a Cultural Weapon.” In Momentum, Margaret Daymond, Johan Jacobs, and Margaret Lenta (eds.). University of Natal Press: Pietermaritzburg, 1985. 37-53.
  • Manganyi, Chabani N. Looking Through the Keyhole. Ravan Press: Johannesburg, 1981
  • Mutloatse, Mothobi. Forced Landing. Ravan Press: Johannesburg, 1980.
  • Ndebele, Njabulo. Rediscovery of the Ordinary. Congress of South African Writers: Johannesburg, 1991.
  • Newell, Stephanie. Readings in African Popular Fiction. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, 2002.
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In the first week of October (7-11) 2015, PASS presented a live broadcasting programme of music, interviews and events with Chimurenga collaborators, The Otolith Collective (Kodwo Eshun and Anjalika Sagar), in London.

Areas of interest included the work of photographer George Hallett – who used the book jacket and record sleeve as a curated exhibition space during the apartheid era; a critical look at the concept of and crude distinction drawn between Sub-Saharan and Arab Africa; and FESTAC ’77, the Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture held in Lagos from 15 January to 12 February 1977. Ideas, thinking and debate moved fluidly between events, environments, broadcasts, music and sound recordings, publications, archive material and objects. Bringing together existing work, research material and areas of interest whilst at the same time expanding focal points, the project represented a moment of activation, interaction and expansion within a mobile and complex network of geographical and organisational contexts.

Participants in the programme included: Agency for Agency, Christine Eyene, Shabaka Hutchings, Dego (2000 Black), Pass Me the Microphone (Amanprit Sandhu and Hansi Momodu-Gordon), Sorryyoufeeluncomfortable, Larry Achiampong, John Akomfrah, Phoebe Boswell, Paul Bradshaw, Ekow Eshun, Ros Gray, Henriette Gunkel, Ayesha Hameed, Anthony Joseph, Michael McMillan, Christian Nyampeta, James Currey, George Shire, Pinise Saul, Kemang Wa Lehulere, Esa Williams, Tom Skinner and Matthew Temple.

To listen to recordings from PASS London, visit our Mixcloud

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Chimurenganyana: Thinking of Brenda by Njabulo Ndebele (2009)

Njabulo Ndebele is a writer and an academic. He is the author of The Cry of Winnie Mandela, Fools and Other Stories and Rediscovery of the Ordinary, a collection of essays.

Steve Gordon is a photographer and music producer based in Cape Town. He is the co-founder of Making Music Productions.

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LIBERATION RADIO: La Discothèque de Sarah Maldoror*

Selected by Ntone Edjabe

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Imperial Tiger Orchestra – LIVE at Albert Hall, Cape Town

Listen to Imperial Tiger Orchestra, featuring Endress Hassan, LIVE at Albert Hall, Woodstock on 1 October 2010.

Switzerland based Imperial Tiger Orchestra, in a unique collaboration with Ethiopian singer Endress Hassen, chart a similarly timeless trajectory, mixing ancient Ethiopian traditions with killer big-band hooks and fierce grooves that betray a future-forward electronic vision

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Spear: Canada’s Truth and Soul Magazine launched in Toronto in 1971 with distinctly middlebrow ambitions. Under the helm of publisher Dan Gooding, Jr. and editor J. Ashton Brathwaite, it aimed to become a Canadian version of Ebony, Jet, Tan, and Essence, the pretty, vacant African-American rags appealing to Black upward mobility and the iridescent accessorizing of Black Power as Black consumerism. However, budget constraints prevailed and Spear quickly became something of an anomaly, a self-published “little” magazine that ran centre folds, a popular magazine that tackled political issues and featured poetry, a celebrity tabloid that covered cultural events.

After Brathwaite went into self-imposed exile in Brooklyn, Brand was one of a number of editors including Ghana-born journalist Sam Donkoh, future Share publisher Arnold Auguste, and the Guyanese-Canadian polymath Arnold Itwaru, who manned the helm of Spear through to the 1980s. With the changes, the journal’s quality improved and Spear‘s pages came to embody something of the cultural paradoxes of Black Canadian middle-class being. Sometimes the juxtapositions were sublime. Spear occasionally found a sort of harmonic convergence of the parallel galaxies of Black political and aesthetic radicalism. In one issue, a profile of Jamaican diva Grace Jones ran next to an interview with Trini Trotskyite CLR James.

The moment wasn’t sustained. By the early 1980s, whatever radical edge Spear maintained was dulled. For the final few issues before it suspended publication in 1987, what was once Spear: Canada’s Truth And Soul was re-tagged as Spear: Canada’s Black Family Magazine. Brathwaite’s initial vision appeared fulfilled.

“Wow! Sister Lyn, you sure got a fine brown frame. Your hot pants look fine too, but with a figure like that who do you think will bother about whether your pants is hot or cold! Hmn!” Or “The Sister with the hotpants on is Vie Anderson, a receptionist aspiring to be a model. Quite a hot pair of pants! But that brown frame is definitely a much hotter item!”



J. Ashton Brathwaite, Odimumba Kwamdela, Danny F. Gooding, Jr., Dionne Brand, Sheldon Taylor, Arnold Itwaru, Femi Ojo-Ade, Gerson Williams, Sam Donkoh, Harold Hoyte, Dalton Clarke


  • At the Crossroads
  • Black Images: A Critical Quarterly of Black Culture
  • Black Youth Speaks
  • The Canadian Negro
  • Contrast
  • Cotopaxi
  • The Dawn of Tomorrow
  • The Harriet Tubman Review
  • The Islander
  • Jet
  • Kola
  • Pride
  • Share
  • Uhuru
  • West Indian News Observer
  • Word Magazine


  • George Elliot Clarke, “A Primer of African-Canadian Literature,” Books in Canada 25.2 (March, 1996): 5-7
  • Odimumba Kwamdela, Soul Surviving up in Canada (Brooklyn: Deep Roots, 1998)
  • Odimumba Kwamdela, Niggers This is Canada (Kibo Books: 1972)
  • Katherine Mckittrick, “Their Blood is There, and They Can’t Throw it Out: Honouring Black Canadian Geographies.” Topia: Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies, 7, (2002): 27-37.
  • Norman (Otis) Richmond, “Bathurst St. has always been part of Black life in T.O.,” Share (October 14th, 2009)
  • Theodore Jurgen Spahn and Janet Peterson Spahn, “SPEAR: Canadian Magazine of Truth and Soul,” From Radical Left to Extreme Right: A bibliography of current periodicals of protest, controversy, advocacy, or dissent, with dispassionate content-summaries to guide librarians and other educators (Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1972), 1517-8


Peter James Hudson

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From 17 – 19 September 2015 , the Pan African Space Station (PASS) installed our pop-up inside the gallery of Fondation Cartier, Paris with live programming that explored the past-present-future of Congolese music cultures. This intervention featured as part of the exhibition Beauté Congo – 1926-2015 – Congo Kitoko.

Contributions by Bintou Simporé (Nova), Ray LemaAfrikadaa MagazineHelmie Bellini trio (feat. Hilaire Penda), Andy Amadi Okoroafor (Clam Mag), DJ Mo LaudiDinozord and David Bovée of Schengen SheguePitchoJolie NgemiBoddhi Satva and more artists in studio.

Duetting in their unique ways, Baloji teamed up with legendary guitar player Dizzy Mandjeku for a performance-lecture, the Kongo Astronauts with Méga MingiediChristine Eyene extended encounters to examine bikutsi music with filmmaker Blaise Ndjehoya, and talks on Congolese cinema by Jean-Pierre Bekelo and Mweze Ngangura.

Additionally, Binetou Sylla of Syllart Records provided a regular feature facilitating conversations with and performances by Alain MabanckouNybomaFabregas Métis Noir, Dally KimokoLokassa Ya MbongoYondo SisterKékélé and Bumba Massa.

Contributions beamed in from New York, Montreal and Kinshasa to present the writers collective Moziki littéraire, from the Centre d’Art Picha in Lubumbashi, and from Bogota by Afro-Columbian music pioneers Palenque Records.

This edition of the Pan African Space Station POP-UP studio in Paris has been developed in collaboration with the Fondation Cartier for the Exhibition “Beauté Congo, 1926-2015, Congo Kitoko”

To listen to recordings from PASS Paris, visit our Mixcloud.

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Chimurenganyana: Blood Money – A Douala Chronicle by Dominique Malaquais (2009)

Dominique Malaquais is a historian of contemporary African art and culture & the author of Architecture, Pouvior et Dissidence au Cameroon.

Malam is a sculptor, painter and installation artist. He lives and works in Douala.

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iPhupho L’ka Biko – live at the Chimurenga Factory

Thursday, 31 March 2022

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In 1974 Barbadian poet Kamau Braithwaite summarized the overlapping realities, the cross-cultural roots, diversity and integration of the Caribbean by declaring, “The unity is submarine.” This idea of a fluid submerged geography, a black Atlantic continuum comprised of flows, passages and displacements also encapsulates the spirit of Savacou Magazine.

Founded in 1970 by Edward Kamau Brathwaite, Andrew Salkey, and John La Rose, Savacou grew out of a Caribbean Arts Movement (1966) that was doubly concerned with Caribbean artistic production and with consolidating a broad alliance between all ‘Third World’ peoples. But Savacou was more than just an archipelago for new black voices; it sought to critically challenge Eurocentric norms through which the postcolonial nation-states in the Caribbean were being imagined and constructed. Central to this challenge was its development of a new critical vernacular, a practice of criticism that both gave form to, and spoke from within, a Caribbean cultural-political tradition.

Savacou took the first bold step in 1970, with its combined third and forth edition of New Writing. Featuring oral-based poetics, performance poetry and Creole verse, the issued exploded traditional divisions between words and music, literature and street culture, textuality and orality, exposing the colonizing presence of Standard literary formats and provoking major critical fracas in literary circles.

For the next decade Savacou continued to challenge topographical and typographical boundaries, working between continents and restoring the fluid motion of performance to the frozen-word-on-page. This culminated in its 1979 anthology New Poets from Jamaica which introduced dub poetry to the literary world and launched the careers of a new generation of poets including Bongo Jerry, Oku Onuora and Mikey Smith.

traduction française par Scarlett Antonio

En 1974, un poète de Barbados, Kamau Braithwaite, résuma les réalités chevauchantes, les origines des cultures croisées, la diversité et l’intégration des Antillais en déclarant, “l’unité est sous-marine”. L’image d’une géographie fluide submergée, d’un continuum d’Atlantique noire englobant les courants, les passages et déplacements est également renfermée dans l’esprit du magazine Savacou.

Fondé en 1970 par Edward Kamau Braithwaite, Andrew Salkey et John La Rose, Savacou gagna de l’importance sous l’influence du Mouvement des Arts Antillais (1966) qui était doublement concerné par la production artistique antillaise et par la consolidation d’une large alliance entre tous les peuples du “Troisième Monde”. Mais Savacou représentait beaucoup plus qu’un archipel pour les nouvelles vois noires; il recherchait à défier de manière critique les normes européennes è travers lesquelles les états-nations post coloniales avaient été imaginées et construites. Le point principal de ce défi fut le développement d’un nouveau langage vernaculaire critique, une pratique de la critique qui à la fois donnait forme à, et venait de l’intérieur, la tradition antillaise culturelle et politique.

Savacou fit une première démarche audacieuse en 1970 avec la fusion de sa troisième et quatrième édition du New Writing (Nouveaux Ecrits). Mettant en vedette poétique orale, poésie spectacle et verse créole, les divisions traditionnelles, éclatées, publiées entre les mots et la musique, la littérature et la culture de la rue, la texte et le parler, exposant la présence colonisée des formats littéraires Standard et provoquant un fracas critique important dans les milieux littéraires.

Au cours de la décennie suivante, Savacou continua à défier les limites topographiques et typographiques, travaillant entre les continents et restituant le mouvement fluide de l’interprétation du mot-gelé-sur-page. Ceci se termina par son anthologie de 1979 “Nouveaux Poètes de la Jamaïque” qui introduisit une poésie avec sons et effets au monde littéraire et lança les carrières d’une nouvelle génération de poètes incluant Bongo Jerry, Oku Onuora et Mickey Smith.


Kenneth Ramchand, Andrew Salkey, Wilfred Cartey, Merle Hodge, Hazel Simmons-McDonald, Elizabeth Clarke, Linton Kwesi Johnson, Stuart Hall, Derek Walcott, George Lamming, Cedric George Lindo, C.L.R James, Monica Skeete, Ras Dizzy, Bongo Jerrey


  • Bim (1942 – 2007)
  • Jamaica Journal (1967)
  • Hambone (1974)
  • Voices
  • Renaissance Noire
  • Small Axe


  • Savacou on Wikipedia
  • La Rose, John (ed); Salkey, Andrew (ed), Savacou 9/10; Journal of the Caribbean Artists Movement. Writing Away From Home.
  • Walmsley, Anne: “A Sense of Community: Kamau Brathwaite and the Caribbean Artists Movement” in (pp. 101-16) Brown, Stewart (ed.), The Art of Kamau Brathwaite. Brigend: Seren, 1995. p. 275 (1995)
  • Kelly Baker Josephs. “Versions of X/Self: Kamau Brathwaite’s Caribbean Discourse.” Anthurium, 1.1 (Fall 2003).
  • June Bobb. Beating a Restless Drum: The Poetics of Kamau Brathwaite and Derek Walcott. New York: Africa World Press, 1997.
  • Stuart Brown. The Art of Kamau Brathwaite. Wales: Seren, 1996.
  • Loretta Collins. “From the ‘Crossroads of Space’ to the (dis)Koumforts of Home: Radio and the Poet as Transmuter of the Word in Kamau Brathwaite’s ‘Meridian’ and Ancestors.” Anthurium, 1.1 (Fall 2003)
  • Raphael Dalleo. “Another ‘Our America’: Rooting a Caribbean Aesthetic in the Work of José Martí, Kamau Brathwaite and Édouard Glissant.” Anthurium, 2.2 (Fall 2004).
  • Anna Reckin: “Tidalectic Lectures: Kamau Brathwaite’s Prose/Poetry as Sound-Space.” Anthurium, 1.1 (Fall 2003).
  • Kamau Brathwaite, Conversations with Nathaniel Mackey Savory, Elaine: “The Word Becomes Nam: Self and Community in the Poetry of Kamau Brathwaite, and Its Relation to Caribbean Culture and Postmodern Theory.” in (pp. 23-43) Hawley, John C. (ed.) , Writing the Nation: Self and Country in the Post-Colonial Imagination. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996. xxvii, 217 pp. ( Amsterdam: Critical Studies 7 ). (1996)
  • Savory, Elaine. “Returning to Sycorax/Prospero’s Response: Kamau Brathwaite’s Word Journey.” Brown 208-230.
  • Thiong’o, Ngugi wa: “Kamau Brathwaite: The Voice of African Presence”, Genova, Pamela A. (ed. and introd.) , Twayne Companion to Contemporary World Literature: From the Editors of World Literature Today, New York, NY: Twayne; Thomson Gale, 2003
  • “Black British Literature Since Windrush” by Onyekachi Wambu
  • Dr. Marlene A. Hamilton, “Books and Reading in Jamaica.” UNESCO, 1984
  • Gordon Rohlehr, “Some Problems of Assessment: A Look at New Expressions in the Art of the Contemporary Caribbean” Caribbean Quarterly, 17:3/4 (1971: Sept/Dec) p. 92-113
  • Breiner, Laurence. “How to Behave on Paper: the Savacou Debate.” Journal of West Indian Literature. 6.1, 1993, p1-10.
  • Brathwaite, Edward Kamau, ed. Savacou 3&4: New Writing. Kingston: Mona, 1970.
  • Brathwaite, Edward Kamau. “Contradictory Omens: Cultural diversity and integration in the Caribbean,” Monograph 1; Mona, Kingston, Jamaica: Savacou, 1974, p64
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Chimurenganyana: A Silent Way: Routes of South African Jazz, 1946-1978 by Julian Jonker (June 2009)

“Where to begin? There are, firstly, names:

Mankunku, McGregor, Brand.

Moeketsi, Moholo, Dyani.

Pukwana, Gwangwa, Coetzee.

Nkanuka, Ngcukana,

Mongezi Feza.

Just a few, to give you a taste. Don’t fret because you haven’t heard their records before. Say the names slowly, as you would recite a poem. Let the consonants roll languidly off your tongue and stretch your lips to pronounce each vowel, and you will already hear distant strains of music.

There are also photographs. Photographs by Basil Breaky, who documented the scene in Johannesburg and Cape Town just before its hottest players made their ways to Europe, leaving the cities to grow dark and silent. One picture: Abdullah Ibrahim, head bent over the keyboard of his piano, his arm stretched over into its gut, plucking its strings. Arched over, listening to some deeper music from the piano’s heart.”

Julian Jonker is a writer and cultural producer living in Cape Town. He is also a member of the Fong Kong Bantu Sound System, a DJ collective, and performs appropriationist sound as liberation chabalala. Basil Breakey is a photographer based in Cape Town. He is the author of the acclaimed Beyond The Blues – Township Jazz in the 60s and 70s.

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CHIMURENGA@20: A Silent Way – Routes of South African Jazz, 1946-1978

Where to begin? Which silences? There are many.

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Inspired by the growing, vibrant global community of pan African artists and propelled by the need to challenge reductive exotic and ethnographic approaches to African culture, Jean Loup Pivin and Simon Njami launched Revue Noire in 1991. Conceived as a printed manifestation of the arts at the time, it covered anything from art, architecture and photography, to cinema, literature, theatre, fashion, African cities, AIDS and even gastronomy. Design played a key role in forwarding its objectives. Revue Noire was glossy, fashion savvy and distinctly Parisian.Striking images were combined with largely informative texts that highlighted artistic responses to the international media and the touristic gaze; the production of discourses of cultural identity on the continent; the framing the African body; urban sites; and rapidly changing dynamic between African aesthetic values and Western influences.

As Simon Njami explained, “Dealing with Africa and all the preconceived ideas people have of the continent, we wanted from the very beginning to use the best paper, the best layout, full colour, and at a size that would do justice to the artists that we were introducing. We had to face a double challenge: at the time we started, contemporary African art barely existed. So we were introducing something to an audience that was not aware of what was going on. Therefore, we had to emphasize not only the contents but also the physical look of the magazine.”

From the beginning Revue Noire was aimed at the widest possible audience: “Art lovers,” “Africa lovers,” “general readers interested in other cultures” as well as “specialists.” Distributed internationally, it was bilingual (English/French), sometimes even trilingual. This language policy and its focus on specific regions – from Abidjan to London, Kinshasa to Paris – not only facilitated access to information on African artistic production but also forged new links between artist based on the continent and those working in the diaspora.

After 34 issues Revue Noire interrupted the printing of the journal in 2001 and refocused its attention on publishing books, curating exhibitions and posting occasional online content.

traduction française par Scarlett Antonio

Inspirés par la communauté mondiale, croissante et vibrante du creuset des artistes africains et poussés par le besoin de défier les approches réduites, exotiques et ethnographiques de la culture africaine, Jean Loup Pivin et Simon Njami ont lancé la Revue Noire en 1991. Conçue comme une manifestation imprimée des arts de l’époque, elle couvre tout de l’art, l’architecture et photographie, au cinéma, littérature, théâtre, mode, citées africaines, SIDA et même la gastronomie. La conception joua un rôle clé dans la manière de transmettre ses objectives. Revue Noire était une revue de luxe, avec un bon sens de la mode et distinctivement parisienne. Aux images frappantes se joignaient des textes pour la plupart informatifs qui soulignaient des réponses artistiques à la presse internationale et aux regards touristiques; la production des discours de l’identité culturelle sur le continent; la charpente du corps africain; les citées urbaines; et changeant rapidement la dynamique entre les valeurs esthétiques africaines et les influences occidentales.

Ainsi que l’expliquait Simon Njami, “En traitant de l’Afrique et de toutes les idées préconçues que les gens ont du continent, nous voulions depuis le tout commencement utiliser le meilleur papier, la meilleure mise en page, plein de couleurs et à la taille qui ferait justice aux artistes que nous présentions. Nous avons du faire face à un double défi: à l’époque où nous avons commencé, l’art contemporain africain existait à peine. Aussi nous présentions quelque chose à une audience qui n’était pas consciente de ce qui se passait. Nous avons du, par conséquent, accentuer non seulement le contenu mais aussi l’apparence physique du magazine.”

Depuis le début, la Revue Noire visait une audience la plus large possible: “des amoureux de l’Art”, “des amoureux de l’Afrique”, “des lecteurs en général intéressés aux autres cultures” ainsi que “des spécialistes.” Distribuée internationalement, elle était bilingue (anglaise/française), quelques fois même trilingue. Cette question du langage et son centre d’intérêts sur des régions spécifiques  d’Abidjan à Londres, de Kinshasa à Paris non seulement facilitaient l’accés à l’information sur la production artistique africaine mais aussi forgeaient des liens nouveaux entre artistes centrés sur le continent et ceux travaillant dans le Diaspora.

Après 34 éditions la Revue Noire cessa l’impression du journal en 2001 et centralisa son attention sur la publication de livres, la conservation des expositions et émettant à l’occasion leur contentement en ligne.


Jean Loup Pivin, Simon Njami, Ngone Fall, Yacouba Konate, Rotimi Fani-Kayode, Sony Labou Tansi, Cheri Samba, Xuly Bet, Patrice Tchikaya, Akoyo Mensah, Alain Mabanckou, Sokari Douglas Camp, Jean Claude Fignole, Andre Magnin, Kossi Efoui, Oswald Boateng, Yvone Vera, Jose Eduardo Agualusa, Rui Tavares, Jean-Luc Raharimanana, Georges Adeagbo, Djibril Diop Mambety



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Liberation Radio

Live on PASS: 15th-18th March 2022, 3-6pm

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‘War Chorale’ by Bheki Khoza – LIVE at St Georges Cathedral


On 30 September 2009, Pan African Space Station presented ‘War Chorale’, composed and directed by Bheki Khoza in response to a short novella by Chilean author and activist, Fernando Alegria. War Chorale is a musical exploration into the slipperiness of history, love and memory, and the nearly invisible line that separates fiction from reality.

It brought together multi-talented jazz vocalist and trombone player Siya Makuzeni, Mozambican guitarist and bandleader Dino Miranda, jazz ensemble A Congregation and the Unqambothi mixed choir in a once off performance that opened PASS II in 2009

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The post-independence era in Ghana saw the rapid rise of a new generation of thinkers, writers and poets. Freed from colonial oppression and political determinism and inspired by the radical Pan Africanist thinking of philosopher, revolutionary and then Ghanaian Prime Minister, Kwame Nkrumah, they sought to explore the experiences of the African from a new intellectual framework. Founded in 1961 by The Writers Workshop, literary organ Okyeame was key in this development.

Taking its name from a traditional Ghanaian figure, the “spokesperson” or “linguist” responsible for channelling communication between a leader and his people, Okyeame sought to give voice to Nkrumah’s dream of a new African identity. Articles calling for a Ghanaian poetry whose content and form was based on oral tradition, drum poetry, and the dirge ran alongside traditional oral works translated by leading contemporary poets such as founding editor Kofi Awoonor, and texts were interspersed with icons and Adinkra symbols. But Okyeame, like its namesake, was not simply a mouthpiece. It was also an “interpreter” and an “ambassador in foreign courts.” It provided a platform for a new generation of writers to experiment with a versatile, hybrid Pan-African linguistics that combined African oral influences with African American literary devices; rural with urban imagery; phonetic innovations with lyricism and wordplay; and dirge rhythms with jazz free-play. As Awoonor recalls, “we were like the foot soldiers of Nkrumah in the cultural field.”


Kwesi Brew, Atukwei Okai, , Efua Sutherkland, Geormbeeyi Adali-Mortt, Michael Francis Dei-Anang, Ayi Kwei Armah, Ama Ata Aidoo


  • Phylon Magazine, US (1940)
  • Presence Africaine, France (1947)
  • Black Orpheus : A Journal of African and Afro-American Literature, Nigeria (1957)
  • Transition Magazine: An International Review, Uganda (1963)


  • Okyeame on Wikipedia
  • “Forward”, Okyeame, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1961.
  • Kwame Botwe-Asamoah. Kwame Nkrumah’s Politico-cultural Thought and Policies, Routledge, 2005
  • Gerald Moore. “Review of Okyeame, No. I (1961)” in Black Orpheus, No.10, 1988, p. 66
  • Atukwei Okai. “The World View Of The Psyche Of A Poet: A Tribute To Mr. Kwesi Brew”, Accra Daily Mail, October 22, 2007.
  • Ata Britwum. “New Trends in Burning Issues in African Literature”, University of Cape Coast English Department Work Papers Vol. 1. 1971.
  • Edwin Thumboo, “Kwesi Brew: the poetry of statement and situation,” African Literature Today, London, 4, 1970, p. 322-330
  • Solomon Iyasere. “Cultural Formalism and the Criticism of Modern African Literature”, The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1976, p. 322-330
  • Richard Priebe. Ghanaian Literatures, Greenwood Press, University of Virginia,
  • Donatus Nwoga. “West Africa: Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone”, The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 6, 1971, p 15-24
  • Albert S. Gerard. European-language Writing in Sub-Saharan Africa, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1986
  • Ben B. Halm. Theatre and Ideology, Associated University Presses, 1995, p 181
  • Christel N. Temple. Literary Pan-Africanism: History, Contexts, and Criticism, Carolina Academic Press, 2005
  • Kwesi Yankah. Speaking for the Chief: Okyeame and the Politics of Akan Royal Oratory, Indiana University Press, 1995
  • Pan African Writers’ Association website
  • Thanks to Manu Herbstein for his assistance
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CHIMURENGA@20: Talkin’ ‘bout Survival – The Repatriation of Reggae

Where Apartheid and broadcasters divided South Africans culturally, here comes bongo natty dread to motivate U-N-I-T-Y.

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Nothembi Mkhwebane – LIVE from Centre for the Book, Cape Town


On 2 October 2009, Pan African Space Station presented Nothembi Mkhwebane, LIVE at Centre for the Book, Cape Town.

African Queen of Ndebele music Nothembi Mkhwebane tunes her electric guitar to both urban and rural traditions, engaging the now through age old verbal idioms of experience, and a polyvocality of tone, tune, and texture; of hue and cry. Mkhwebane has her roots in rural Mpumalanga where she grew up steeped in Ndebele musical traditions. Since her move to Pretoria in 1977 she has recorded multiple albums, collaborated extensively and formed her own record company.

At once soulful and ecstatic, visually mesmerizing and intellectually challenging, her spectacular performances combine music and song with wildly energetic dance routines and sensational outfits, decorated with typical, intricate Ndebele bead and metalwork. These have secured her a following both in South Africa and abroad and she regularly performs everywhere from cultural gatherings and traditional ceremonies, to big stages in the US, the UK and Europe.

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Moto was founded in 1959 in Zimbabwe’s Midlands town of Gweru as a weekly community newspaper by the Catholic church. From these modest beginnings, Moto fast became one of the most outspoken voices in the liberation war, providing scathing criticism of the colonial government and support for African nationalist parties. Banned by the British regime in 1974, it re-emerged in 1980, first as a newspaper and then as one of the first magazines to provide content in ChiShona, SiNdebele and English.

Moto faced a new set of challenges in the post-liberation era. Firstly, it needed to make the transition from the campaigning stance it adopted in the days of UDI, to a critical, independent voice in the era of majority rule. Under a mandate of being “the voice of the voiceless and defender of the downtrodden”, it switched its focus to issues generally marginalised by the state-controlled press, running socio-economic and human-interest stories, often set in rural communities. The magazine also had to negotiate the sometimes awkward relationship between its church base and its outspoken political stance. In this regard it regularly ran features on the formation of the African clergy, paying particular attention to the elevation of Africans to the hierarchy and the ranks of the canonized. Despite ongoing economic difficulties and opposition from the Mugabe government, who made several attempts to shut down the publication, Moto‘s readership continues to grow, amongst intellectuals, professionals and students, as well as rural readers.

traduction française par Scarlett Antonio

Moto a été fondé en 1959 par l’église catholique dans la ville de Gweru dans les régions centrales du Zimbabwe comme un journal hebdomadaire local. De ses débuts modestes, Moto est vite devenu une des voix les plus franches dans la guerre de libération, procurant une critique acerbe du gouvernement colonial et un soutien pour les parties nationalistes africains. Interdit par le régime britannique en 1974, il refit surface en 1980, en premier comme un journal et ensuite comme un des premiers magazines à offrir un contenu en ChiShona, SiNdebele et en anglais.

Moto affronta une nouvelle série de défis durant la période post-libération. Premièrement, il avait besoin de faire la transition de la position de campagne qu’il adopta dans les jours de l’UDI à une voix critique, indépendante pendant la période du gouvernement majoritaire. Sous un mandat en tant “la voix des sans-voix et le défendeur des opprimés”, il détourna son attention sur les sujets généralement marginalisés par la presse contrôlée par l’état, présentant des faits socio-économiques et à intérêts humanitaires, survenant souvent dans les communautés rurales. Le magazine devait également négocier les relations parfois délicates entre sa fondation chrétienne et sa position politique clairement exprimée. A cet égard, il publiait régulièrement des articles sur la formation du clergé africain, payant une attention particulière sur la promotion des africains à la hiérarchie et aux rangs des canonisés. En dépit des difficultés économiques continues et l’opposition du gouvernement Mugabe, qui tenta de nombreuses fois d’arrêter la publication, le nombre d’abonnés au Moto continue de croître parmi les intellectuels, les professionnels et étudiants, ainsi que parmi les lecteurs du secteur rural.


Bishop Haene established Moto magazine in Gwelo in conjunction with the Catholic African Association. It was edited by Paul Chidyausik in the late 60s and 70s, Onesimo Makani Kabwezaand saw Moto through Independence becoming one of the first Zimbabwean journalists to break the “culture of silence” around Zimbabwean government under Robert Mugabe. Tangai Wisdom Chipangura is the current editor-in-chief.


  • Moto and the populist and politically-minded Parade were the only magazines at independence that targeted a “black readership”. Like MotoParade continued after Independence first taking on a tabloid format then moving to hard-hitting investigative news. In 1991, socially-mined popular magazine Horizon, established by former Parade editor, Andy Moyse, joined the ranks of Moto and Parade.


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Festac at 45: Idia Tales – Three Takes and a Mask*

By Dominique Malaquais and Cedric Vincent

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In the 1990s the self-declared “bedeaste and high priest of painting mystico-African religio-secret,” Mfumu’Eto (Mfumu’Eto Nkou-Ntoula) established a one-man guerrilla publishing empire on the streets of Kinshasa. His arsenal of little comic books, written in Lingala, Thiluba and French, made on low-quality paper, self-produced using stencils and photocopying machines and distributed informally in the market place, quickly gained notoriety for their virulent attacks against the political powers-that-be. Along with other low-cost and locally distributed magazines such as Fula Ngenge, Mfumu’Eto’s comics inaugurated the era of author as producer DRC’s literary world. Like other comics produced in Kinshasa at the time they were heavily influenced by urban culture, and smeared with local indiscretions known as “kinoiseries”. Mfumu’Eto however also drew inspiration from local traditions, combining black magic and religion, pulp fiction and politics, irony and attitude in a wild display of interdisciplinary bravado that directly contested dominant colonial systems of knowledge.

His most famous series includes the politically propulsive A Nguma Meli Muasi Ya Na Kati Kinshasa, first published in 1990 and finally banned by the authorities and his devilish Satan Mobutu series which re-imaged former dictator Mobutu as a contemporary Beelzebub. Mfumu’Eto work was recently exhibited in Europe and the US, following the international success of popular painters such as Cheri Samba and the growing interest in African comics.

traduction française par Scarlett Antonio

Dans les années 1990, Mfumut’Eto (Mfumu’Eto Nkou-Ntoula), qui s’est déclaré être le bedeau et le grand prêtre de la peinture du secret mystique- religion africaine, à établi dans les rues de Kinshasa un empire de l’édition géré par un seul guérillero. Son arsenal de petits livres comiques, écrits en Lingala, Thiluba et Français, édités avec un papier de pauvre qualité, manufacturés de ses propres moyens en utilisant des stylos et des photocopieurs et distribués sans cérémonie sur la place du marché, ont rapidement gagné de la notoriét pour leurs attaques virulentes contre les pouvoirs politiques. En parallèle avec les autres magazines distribués localement à prix bas tel que Fula Ngenge, les comiques de Mfumu’Eto inauguraient l’ère de l’auteur en tant que producteur du monde littéraire de la RDC. Comme d’autres comiques produits à Kinshasa à cette époque, ils étaient influencés de manière importante par la culture urbaine et portaient atteinte aux indiscrétions locales surnommées “kinoiseries”. Cependant Mfumu’Eto tira également son inspiration des traditions locales, mélangeant la magie noire et religion, fiction à sensations et politique, ironie et une attitude de déploiement dépassée de bravade interdisciplinaire qui contestait directement les systèmes coloniaux dominants de la connaissance.

Ses séries les plus célèbres incluent le propulseur politiquement A Nguma Meli Muasi Ya Na Kati Kinshasa, publié la première fois en 1990 et interdit par les autorités et ses séries maudites Satan Mobutu qui remettait en images l’ancien dictateur Mobutu comme un Beelzebub contemporain. Le travail de Mfumu’Eto a été récemment exposé en Europe et dans les états américains, à la suite du succès international des peintres populaires tel que Cheri Samba et l’intérêt croissant dans les comiques africains.

“Household troubles and national grief, whether rooted in sorcery invasions, sexual rivalries, or human animosities, combine with wondrous flashes of celebrity and power. Through all of it the self-proclaimed Emperor and Majesty chronicles life in Kinshasa: past, present and future. “



Mfumu’Eto Nkou-Ntoula


  • Antilope (1959)
  • Jeunes pour jeunes (1968) which became Kake (1971)
  • Bede Afrique, Magazine panafricaine de la BD (1985)
  • Afro BD (1990)
  • Fula ngenge
  • Africanissimo
  • Bleu-Blanc
  • Yaya
  • Disco-magazine
  • Bilenge


  • Mfumu’eto on Wikipedia
  • French wikipedia.
  • Africa e Mediterraneo.
  • The Africa Comics project.
  • “L’artiste solitaire des rues de Kinshasa”, Africinfo.
  • Lumbala, Hilaire Mbiye. “An inventory of the comic strip in Africa,” Africultures.
  • Hunt, Nancy Rose. “Tintin and the Interruptions of Congolese Comics”, Images and Empires: Visuality in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa, Paul Stuart Landau, Deborah D. Kaspin (eds), University of California Press, 2002. p p90.
  • Mfumu’eto. “Nguma ameliu Musai na Kati ya Kinshasa.” Menseul de Bandes dessinees 1, no.1 (April 1990) Kinshasa Editions Mpangala Original and Offest MGS.
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Festac at 45: Steal Back the Treasure

In pirating the head of Queen Idia to use it as a logo for Festac 77 , proposes another dissonant route that challenges the very idea of the work of art as unique object.

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Franck Biyong – LIVE at Centre for the Book, Cape Town


On 1 October 2009, Pan African Space Station presented Franck Biyong and Massak Afroclectic Orchestra, LIVE at Centre for the Book Cape Town.

Cameroonian composer and producer Franck Biyong operates outside the boundaries which map the trajectories of African musicians in and out of the continent. After migrating to France in the late 80s, he consciously bypassed Paris and Brussels’ factories of Afro-pop slickness to establish himself as an electro producer in the London Underground. And although he formed Massak in 1997 as an Afrobeat ensemble-tribute to the legendary Africa 70 and Egypt 80, he used the band as a platform to project the music forward – a sound he called “Afrolectric”.

As a producer and musician, Biyong has collaborated with Afropolitanist greats such as Keziah Jones, Tony Allen, Cheick Tidiane Seck and many more; and released several 7′ and 12′ on dance labels such as BBE, Compost, Soul Fire and the rising Truth & Soul. He wrote and performed an opera, in memory of the poet Aime Cesaire, titled Knowledge-Identity-Reconstruction. He’s currently at work on a new Massak LP in collaboration with bikutsi legends Les Tetes Brulees.[Franck Biyong (guitar, vocals); Xavier Sibre (baritone sax, bass clarinet, flutes); Loc Da Silva (keyboards); Nicolas Baudino (tenor sax, soprano sax, flute); Thierry Tauliaut (percussion); Olivier Berthelot (bass); Auguste Manly (drums)] 

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Published in Morocco in 1966, Lamalif took its title from two Arabic letters that form the word “la”, meaning “no”. This sly wordplay encapsulated the magazine’s objective. Launched after the defeat of the Moroccan opposition (Union Socialiste des Forces Populaires) by the monarchy, Lamalif was a form of challenge. “The goal in this tragic situation was not to lose hope, to build an alternative,” explained the founders, Zakia Daoud and Mohamed Loghlam.

Throughout its 22 years existence, Lamalif was characterised by its intellectual rigour and radical political stance. Covering social, cultural and economical issues, all from a political perspective it established itself as “a space for reflection and a force of significant challenge.” Its ideological debates amongst journalists, economists, academics, politicians and revolutionaries became global intellectual references and proved seminal in the development of many of Mocrocco’s best thinkers and writers. Its focus on arts and culture was equally influential. Lamalif‘s covers frequently featured work by artists and its writings on film contributed to the rise of Moroccan cinema in the 1970s.

Lamalif was however never exclusionary and it soon established a wide and diverse readership. Ironically it was this success that led to the publications ultimate demise. Its popularity and outspoken stance soon attracted the ire of the authorities and it didn’t take long before Daoud was “regarded as Public Enemy.” After years of threats, censorship and seizures, Lamalif was finally forced to shut down in 1988.

traduction française par Scarlett Antonio

Publi au Maroc en 1966, Lamalif a pris son nom des deux lettres de l’alphabet arabe qui forment le mot “la”, signifiant “non”. Ce jeu de mots malin résumait l’objectif du magazine. Lancé après la défaite de l’opposition marocaine (Union socialiste des Forces Populaires) par la monarchie, Lamalif était une forme de défit. “Le but dans cette tragique situation n’était pas de perdre espoir, de construire une alternative,” expliquaient les fondateurs, Zakia Daoud et Mohamed Loghlam.

Pendant ces 22 ans d’existence, Lamalif était caractérisé par sa rigueur intellectuelle et sa position politique radicale. Reportant sur les problèmes sociaux, culturels et économiques, d’un point de vue politique, il s’est affermi comme “un espace pour la réflexion et une force de défit considérable.”

Ses débats idéologiques parmi les journalistes, économistes, académiciens, politiciens et révolutionnaires devinrent des références intellectuelles mondiales et ont prouvé être fructueux dans le développement de nombreux écrivains et meilleurs penseurs marocains. Son intérêt sur les arts et la culture était également influents. Les reportages de Lamalif mettaient fréquemment en vedette le travail fait par des artistes et ses articles sur les films ont contribué à l’essor du cinéma marocain dans les années 1970.

Lamalif n’a néanmoins jamais été exclusif et s’est vite établi une place parmi un grand nombre de lecteurs différents. Ironiquement, ce fut ce succès qui mena les publications à leur ultime fin. Sa popularité et sa position de franc-parler attira la colère des autorités et il n’a pas fallu attendre longtemps avant que Daoud soit “considéré comme l’Ennemi Publique.” Après des années de menaces, de censures et saisies, Lamalif fut forcé de fermer définitivement en 1988.


Jean Gourmelin, Abdellah Laraoui, Paul Pascon, Abdelkebir Khatibi, Abdallah Laroui, Fathallah Oualalou Oualalou, Abdelaali Benamour, Habib El Malki, Khalid Alioua, Bruno Etienne, Mohammed Jibril, Mohammed Tozy, Aboubakr Jamai, Salim Jay, Najib Boudraa


  • Almaghrib(1937)
  • Jeune Afrique (1960)
  • Al Mouharrir(1962)
  • Addoustour(1963)
  • Souffles (1966)
  • Anoual
  • TelQuel (2001), which founder Ahmed Reda Benchemsi initially wanted to call Lamalifin tribute.


  • Lamalif on Wikipedia
  • Zakya Daoud, Les Années Lamalif, Tarik Editions, 2007
  • Laila Lalami, “The Lamalif Years”, February 15, 2007
  • Abdeslam Kadiri, “Portrait. Les mille vies de Zakya Daoud”, TelQuel, 2005.
  • “An interview with Zakia Daoud”, APN, March 9, 2007
  • “Rétrospectivee : Il était une fois la presse”, TelQuel
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Udaba ft. Kgafela oa Mogogodi – LIVE at Centre for the Book, Cape Town


On 1 October 2009, Pan African Space Station hosted Udaba, in collaboration with spoken-word author and filmmaker Kgafela oa Magogodi, at The Centre for the Book, Cape Town.

Udaba is a musical flurry of passion, soul, soothsaying, truth-telling and jazz poetry that takes you on flights of improvisational abandon. Their politically engaged elegies fuse vernacular lyricism, Xhosa praise singing and African indigenous music on jam-like sets with a rotating crew of regular collaborators. Udaba draw their inspiration from Xhosa literature and refer to their music as Umculo Buciko (musical essays). Based in the Eastern Cape, they regularly perform at gatherings, poetry jams, festivals and clubs and recently released their debut album Umculo Buciko.

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“This magazine is just to say we’re out there and we don’t buy your shit. It’s freedom of expression and the means by which a long-suffering artist becomes an entrepreneur, taking destiny into his own hands and out of the devious honkies who so love control,” wrote self-proclaimed culture terrorist Elliot Josephs aka Zebulon Dread in the editorial of the first issue of Hei Voetsek! (loosely translated: Hey! Get lost!). A diatribe-of-a-publication, the magazine burst upon the Cape Town writing and peddling scenes in 1997, at a time when the South African cultural journals happily basked under the rainbow. Written, designed, drawn, photoshopped and photocopied by Dread himself, Hei Voetsek! dissected South African politics, culture, society and sex. No one was safe from Dread’s virulent political tirades. Using Cape Flats taal, a street-smart mixture of English, Afrikaans and slang, Dread railed against everyone from corrupt politicians and conservative Afrikaaners and “darkies with a chip on their shoulders”.

After the publishing establishment, scared off by his politically incorrect satire, refused Hei Voetsek!, Dread turned to small independent black printers. Next he took to the streets, becoming his own walking and ranting marketing and distribution machine, hard-selling the magazine to oft unwilling victims at book fairs, street corners and arts festivals countrywide.

Dread went on to add two new magazines to his empire: Poes! and Piel!, which parodied the sexist magazine industry. He also published numerous satirical books. Finally in 2002, disillusioned with the lack of transformation in South Africa, Dread committed ritual suicide. As Elliot Josephs explained: “I am going to give up the ghost of my alter-ego, Zebulon Dread, and depart for India in order to find the happiness that the liberation struggle failed to deliver.” On dark stormy Cape Town nights, the dreadlocked visage of the “Last of the Great, Great Hotnots” can still be found haunting the city’s Green Market Square with the cry: “Sies! Vark! Voetsek!” (Sis! Pig! Get lost!)

“I lived in two worlds. I read. I read profusely. I was reading Dostoyevsky, I was reading Sartre. I read Herman Hesse’s Steppenwolf in 1977 and it had such a big impact on me, I had to go and see the school psychiatrist after that – because I could understand that Steppenwolf, that outsider, was me. I was the madman living inside the insanity of humanity.”

Achal Prabhala

“We took our collective birth in South Africa where, under the aegis of being black, we suffered at the hands of so-called white people. Which means that many souls, together, took their birth to endure karmic punishment – which they’ve not understood.”

THE BLACK GURUGael Reagon meets the spirit formerly known as Zebulon Dread.

traduction française par Scarlett Antonio

“Ce magazine est juste pour dire que nous sommes là et nous n’avalons pas votre merde. C’est la liberté d’expression et les moyens par lesquels un artiste qui souffre depuis longtemps devient un entrepreneur, prenant sa destinée entre ses propres mains et hors des tortueuses oies qui aiment tant contrôler,” a écrit celui qui se proclame le terroriste culturel, Elliot Joseph saka Zebulon Dread dans l’éditorial de la première édition d’Hei Voetsek! (traduit vaguement par: eh! Fiche-moi le camp!). Une diatribe de la publication, le magazine s’éclate sur les scènes écrites et colportées du Cap en 1997, à l’époque où les journaux culturels Sud-Africains se dorent joyeusement sous l’arc-en-ciel. Ecrit, planifié, dessiné, photographié et photocopié par Dread lui-même, Hei Voetsek! dissèque la politique, la culture, la société et le sexe sud-africains. Personne n’était épargné sous les tirades politiques et virulentes de Dread. Utilisant le langage du ‘Cape Flats'(*), un mélange d’anglais, d’afrikaans et d’argot, Dread se répand en injures contre tout le monde, des politiciens corrompus et des afrikanders conservateurs aux “noirs qui sont aigris”.

Une fois que la maison d’édition refusa Hei Voetsek!, apeuré par ses satires politiquement incorrectes, Dread se tourna vers les petits imprimeurs noirs indépendants. Ensuite, il se mit dans les rues, faisant lui-même sa propre commercialisation ambulante et oratoire et devenant lui-même sa propre machine de distribution, faisant une promotion de vente agressive du magazine aux victimes souvent contre leurs grés aux ventes de livres, dans les coins de rues et les festivals d’arts dans tout le pays.

Dread alla ajouter deux nouvelles revues à son empire: Poels! et Piels!, qui parodiaient l’industrie sexiste des magazines. Il publia également de nombreux livres satiriques. Finalement en 2002, désillusionné par le manque de transformation en Afrique du Sud, Dread commis un suicide rituel. Ainsi que l’expliquait Elliot Josephs: “Je vais abandonner le fantôme de mon pseudonyme, Zebulon Dread, et partir en Inde afin de trouver le bonheur que la lutte pour la liberté n’a pas apporté.” Dans les nuits noires et orageuses du Cap, le visage redouté et enfermé du “Dernier des Grands, Grands Hotnots” peut encore être trouvé entrain d’hanter la Place du Marché Vert de la ville criant: “Sies! Vark! Voetsek!” (Aïe! Cochon! Fiche-moi le camp!). (*) nom d’une banlieue/ quartier au Cap.


Elliot Josephs aka Zebulon Dread


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For the last three decades, Nathaniel Mackey, an African-American writer on the subject of “both sides of the hyphen”, has navigated a diversity of forms and subjects. He has published poetry, fiction, essays and lectured extensively. Mackey is also the founding editor of the Hambone Literary Journal. Yet despite the diversity of its output, Mackey’s work is almost always about the possibility of “discrepant engagement” between cultures. The phrase serves both a title and an apt description of Hambone.

The magazine’s first issue was published in the spring of 1974 as a group effort by the Committee on Black Performing Arts at Stanford University. It was dormant until 1982, when Mackey revived it as clearly different journal. With Mackey as sole editor and publisher of the Hamburger, “The main meeting place for Third World, American minority and white avant-gardists.” According to MacKey the cultivation and pursuit of networks of associations and communities of interest, inclination and affinity is a central reason for starting the magazine. “Okay, here’s my map … and we’re going to call it Hambone.”

Mackey’s Hambone covers a large region. In it he has a rich cross-cultural trickster poetics, traversing the African American vernacular and Euro-American “open form” poetics, slipping across literary boundaries and wire-cutting his way through gender constraints. Since 1982 Hambone has published everything from interviews to poetry and fiction. It also publishes reviews, essays and debates on African American culture, including a controversial conversation on the subject of black literature with Ismael Reed that Amiri Baraka later described as “straight-out agentry, and in certain circumstances could easily get these dudes iced.”

In addition to his work writing and editing, Nathaniel Mackey worked as radio disc jockey beginning as an undergraduate at Princeton’s WPRB and including nearly 30 years at Santa Cruz’s KUSP. For him the experience working on radio is inextricably linked to his writing: “I’ve long felt similarities between the processes of selection, sequencing, juxtaposition, pacing, transition, etc. that putting a radio program together entails and those involved in writing prose, writing poetry, and editing my journal, Hambone.” Further, Nate has described, from the beginning of his writing, “a pattern in which music would repeatedly impact, appear in, and be referred to in my writing, whether poetry or prose.” Listen to Nates Bass Catheral Mix below.

A Bass Cathedral Discography and Mix

traduction française par Scarlett Antonio

Pendant les trois dernières décennies, Nathaniel Mackey, un écrivain africain-américain résolu d’explorer “les deux côtés du trait d’union”, a dirigé une diversité de formes et sujets. Il a publié de la poésie, de la fiction, des essais et a considérablement donné des conférences. Mackey est aussi l’éditeur fondateur du journal littéraire Hambone. Néanmoins en dépit de la diversité de sa production, le travail de Mackey a presque toujours rassemblé une seule idée ce qu’il nomme la possibilité de “l’engagement contradictoire” entre les cultures. La phrase sert à la fois de titre pour son livre d’essais et pour la description appropriée d’Hambone.

La première édition du magazine àa été publiée au printemps de 1974 comme un effort de groupe par le Comité des Arts Performants Noirs à l’université de Stanford. Il a été dormant jusqu’en 1982, lorsque Mackey le fit revivre comme un journal considérablement différent. Avec Mackey comme rédacteur et éditeur Hambone devint connu comme “le point de rendez-vous pour le Troisiजme Monde, la minorité Américaine et les avant-gardistes blancs.” Selon Mackey la culture et poursuite des réseaux d’association et l’intérêt des communes, l’inclination et l’affinité furent sa raison principale pour commencer le magazine. “Mon idée était de mettre simplement mon sens de la communauté des écrivains et artistes sur un genre de carte  Ok, voilà ma carte… et nous allons l’appeler Hambone.

The Hambone of  Mackey covers a large area. In it he represents a man of rich poetry and crossed cultures, crossing the world of African American vernacular poetry and “open form” Eureo-American, sliding across the literary limits and shearing his way through the constraints of kind. Since 1982,  Hambone  has published everything from interviews to poetry and fiction. He also publishes reviews, essays and debates on African American culture, including controversial conversations about the function of black literature with Ismael Reed that Ami Baraka later describes as “pure chemistry and which in certain circumstances , could easily freeze his guys.”


Sun Ra, Robert Duncan, Beverly Dahlen, Jay Wright, Edward Kamau Brathwaite, Carence Major, Wilson Harris, Jodi Braxton, Michael Harper, David Henderson, bell hooks, Ishmael Reed


  • Free Lance (1955)
  • Negro Digest/ Black World (1961)
  • Obsidian/Obsidian II (1975)
  • Black American Literature Forum (1976)
  • Callaloo (1976)
  • First World (1977)
  • Y’Bird (1977)
  • Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women (1984)
  • Catalyst (1986)
  • Shooting Star Review (1986)
  • Konch (1990)


  • Nathaniel Mackey. Discrepant Engagement: Dissonance, Cross-culturality, and Experimental Writing, Cambridge University Press, 1993
  • “Nathaniel Mackey Interview by Christopher Funkhouser,” Poetry Flash: A Poetry Review and Literary Calendar for the West, 224 (1991)
  • Nathaniel Mackey, “Editing Hambone”, Callaloo Volume 23, Number 2, Spring 2000, pp. 665-668
  • Ronald Maberry Johnson, Abby Arthur Johnson, Propaganda and Aesthetics: The Literary Politics of Afro-American Magazines in the Twentieth Century, University of Massachusetts Press, 1979
  • Nathaniel Mackey, Paracritical Hinge: Essays, Talks, Notes, Interviews, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2005
  • Hambone: Destination Out BY ANDREW JORON
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In a testament to Cheikh Anta Diop, Boubacar Boris Diop raises radical views on creative writing, a challenge to what he laments as our literary Sahara.

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Anthony Joseph & The Spasm Band – LIVE at Assembly, Cape Town

Anthony Joseph is a poet, novelist, musician and lecturer described as ‘the leader of the black avant-garde in Britain’. Born in Trinidad, his experimental poetry, fiction, music and spoken word occupies a space between surrealism, jazz and the rhythms of Caribbean speech and sound, creating what he calls ‘liquid textology’. He is the author of two poetry collections and a novel The African Origins of UFOs.

This performance, featuring his jazz septet The Spasm Band, brings together the echoes of dub poets, Mystic Revelation of Rastafari, the Art Ensemble of Chicago and Sun Ra cosmic visions. Joseph’s new collection of poetry, Bird Head Son, is due in 2008 and will be followed by a new Spasm Band album with the same title.

Live at Assembly, Cape Town on 2 October 2008.

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Glendora Review was conceived in an atmosphere of intellectual crisis following the brain drain from Nigeria during the Abacha regime. Its founder, Olakunle Tejuoso, whose family owns the Lagos alternative bookstore after which the journal is named, wanted to create a forum where people could access the work being done by Nigerian intellectuals who had fled the country, and a bridge for artistic theories and activities being propagated by African intellectuals in the West and their contemporaries at home.

Constantly engaging and interrogating the idea of Africa as a contested and dynamic invention, Glendora provided a platform for intellectual discourse on literary, visual, and performance cultures that is sensitive to the mutations and complexities of cultural work on Africa in a global age. A strong aesthetic sense coupled with an editorial style that, while rigorous, managed to avoid being too intellectual or esoteric, attracted a wide-ranging readership in Nigerian and abroad.

Although initially focused on Nigeria’s arts and cultures, Glendora grew into a pan African journal with regular features and interviews of icons such as Ngugi wa Thiongo, Mbongeni Ngema, Sembene Ousmane or Sun Ra, and critical texts on African literature. The journal also included a books supplement.

The last issue of Glendora appeared in 2004 and its publishers have focused since on the publication of books, namely the excellent tome of the West African megapolis, Lagos: A City At Work.

traduction française par Scarlett Antonio

Glendora Review a été conçu dans une atmosphère de crise intellectuelle à la suite du fossé cérébral venant du Nigéria pendant le régime Abacha. Son fondeur, Olakunle Tejuoso, dont la famille possède l’alternative du magasin de livres au Lagos après lequel il prend son nom, voulait créer un forum où les gens pouvaient avoir accès au travail fait par les intellectuels nigériens qui ont fui le pays et créer un pont pour les théories et activités artistiques étant propagées par les intellectuels africains en Occident et leurs contemporains dans le pays.

Constamment engageant et interrogeant l’idée de l’Afrique en tant qu’une invention contestée et dynamique, Glendora fournissait une plateforme pour les débats intellectuels sur la littérature, le visuel et la performance des cultures qui est sensible aux mutations et aux complexités du travail culturel sur l ‘Afrique dans une période globale. Un sens de l’esthétique puissant couplé avec un style de rédaction qui, bien que rigoureux a réussi à éviter d’être trop intellectuel ou ésotérique, a attiré une grande étendue de lecteurs au Nigéria et à l’étranger.

Bien que concentré initialement sur les cultures et arts du Nigéria, Glendora a grandi pour devenir un journal de la [pan] africaine avec des chroniques régulières et interview d’icônes tels que Ngugi wa Thiongo, Mbongeni Ngema, Sembene Ousmane ou Sun Ra et des textes critiques sur la littérature Africaine. Le journal a aussi inclus un supplément de livres. La dernière édition de Glendora apparut en 2004 et ses éditeurs se sont depuis concentrés sur la publication de livres, notamment l’excellent tome de la megapolis Africaine occidentale, Lagos : Une Ville Au Travail


Dapo Adeniyi, Akin Adesokan, Michael Veal, Okwui Enwezor, Sola Olorunyomi, Greg Tate, Sefi Ransome-Kuti (Sefi Atta), John Collins, Ololade Bamidele, Chika Okeke, Odia Ofeimun, David Aradeon, Giarokwu Lemi, Dele Jegede, Depth of Field Collective


  • Black Orpheus (1957)
  • Transition (1963)
  • New Culture (1978)
  • Kurio Africana (1989)
  • The Eye (1992)
  • Uso (1995)
  • Agufon (1997)
  • Position (2001)
  • Farafina


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by Dambudzo Marechera

Available now at our online store.

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by Greg Tate

All roads lead to Jimi Hendrix.

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Civil Lines

Launched in 1994 by publisher Ravi Dayal, Civil Lines quickly became the home of vital new Indian writing in the English language. Initially inspired by British magazine GRANTA, its focus on high quality unpublished fiction, personal history, reportage and inquiring journalism instantly appealed to what its founding editors describe as a new generation of “intelligent literate urban Indians” who valued high quality English writing and bought fiction and non-fiction for the pleasure of reading.

Significantly the magazine sought to challenge the traditional literary model by refusing to publish to a set schedule. Instead it prioritized quality, with issues appearing only when the editors felt they had garner enough fine, unpublished writing connected with India to warrant an issue. The result has been five issues to date, all defined by their consistency, surprise, eclecticism, intelligence and originality. Largely edited by practicing writers (Rukun Advani, Ivan Hutnik, Mukul Kesavan and later Kai Friese) rather than academics and with no defined literary manifesto determining the content, Civil Lines is ultimately a testimony to power of the story to describe, illuminate and make real.

“The first thing that was ground-breaking about a journal like Civil Lines in India, then, was precisely this: it revealed exactly where it was coming from, its hybridity, limitations and possibilities, without shame, without deception, without fronting, without pretensions to subalternity, without abandoning politics.”

Four Ground-breaking Things In Five Issues of Civil Lines or, Ways to Get Your Head Out of the Postcolonial Sand – An Essay by Vivek Narayanan


Civil Lines advertises itself as New Writing from India. This is misleading (as most advertisements are) because in its short life Civil Lines has been host to old writing newly translated, writing by not-Indian writers, writing by Indians Elsewhere and so on….”

Civil Lines An Essay by Achal Prabhala


Anita Roy, Amarish Sat-wick, Susan Visvanathan, Rosie Llewellyn-Jones, Amitava Kumar, Amit Chaudhury, Saba Naqvi Bhaumik, Nirmala Subramaniam, Sankarshan Thakur, Mishi Saran, Lauent de Gaulle



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“Nothing is true, everything is alive.”
Moses März, imagines a conversation between Edoaurd Glissant and Patrick Chamoiseau about the Philosophy of Relation.

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Remember Glissant

Moses März writes of Édouard Glissant, Martinican, poet and compatriot of the more celebrated Aimé Césaire and Frantz Fanon

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Chimurenga Factory
Saturday, 06 November 2021

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Bebson de la Rue & Tryonix – LIVE at PASS

Bebson de la Rue is a singer/rapper and the leader of Tryonix, an Afrofuturist project based in Kinshasa (DRC). As poet laureate of Kinshasa’s streets (hence his nickname “De La Rue” meaning “Of the streets”), Bebson is an influential figure in Ngbaka, one of the city’s most notorious ghettos, where he also teaches music and dance. He is also an inventor of music instruments and sound machines, some of which are used during Tryonix’s performances. Bebson and his brother Dicoco Boketshu, a bass player and video artist, formed Tryonix during the mid-1990s, as a collaborative project that blends Congolese rumba with rap and Jamaican raggamuffin with jazz sensibilities and electronica. Lyrically, Bebson taps into his vast knowledge of proverbs, Mongo chants and Kinshasa’s street slang. A sound they call Original Raggamuffin Folklore (ORF). In 1998, Tryonix released their critically acclaimed album entitled Mazapo, which lead to appearances at festivals across the DRC. They’ve since performed in Cameroon, Belgium and France.

Live at The Assembly (Wed Oct 1, 2008)

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Founded in 1999, Amkenah magazine is published by writer Alaa Khaled and photographer Salwa Rashad in Alexandria, Egypt.

Amkenah (“Places”) is concerned with “the poetics of place”: the people who live in, work at, and pass through places. A direct response to elitism, parochialism and conservatism in the literally scene in Egypt, as well as its Cairo’s centralism, it was born out of a search for a literary form that was more open and accessible. As such, it aims to re-forge a direct link between literature, art and culture on the one hand and life as it is lived more broadly on the other.

Through essays, interviews, photographs and archival extracts which feature different places, the editors to aim make visible that the life of people living in a certain place is the basic dimension of contemporary reality.
Amkenah looks at culture, literature and place primarily from the viewpoint of transformation. It seeks to trace the points of transformation in a particular place at a particular time. This allows place and art and literature to be seen as fluid, changing elements. In this way, it hopes to escape the game of exclusion and inclusion played by a global culture bent on obliterating the particular. Place becomes a container of change and dispute; a reference point that can’t be easily obliterated, or superseded by meta-narrative or cultural theory.

In keeping with its commitment to lived experience it publishes primarily nonfiction written from a subjective point of view that challenges formal, academic styles with inventiveness, colloquialism and humanity.
Texts by experienced writers, poets, scholars and journalists are published alongside new voices and supplemented with art and photography.

Openly defiant of the conservative “independent scene” and the nepotism-ridden state-affiliated press, the magazine was initially self-funded by its editors and while it currently publishes intermittently, it’s completely financially self-sufficient.


Alaa Khaled, Salwa Rashad, Mohab Nasre, Heba El-Cheikh, Adania Shibli, Haytham el-Wardany, Ahmad Farouq, Youssef Rakha, Tarek Naga, Richard Jacquemond, Stephanie Dujols




  • Thanks to Fouad Asfour
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Pieces of Dominique

The writings, translations and ideas of our dearly departed friend, comrade and co-conspirator Dominique Malaquais (1964-2021), in Chimurenga

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Out of Sight

A short story by Yambo Ouologuem adapted from the French by Dominique Malaquais and Ntone Edjabe.

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Variations on the Beautiful in the Congolese World of Sounds

by Achille Mbembe; translated by Dominique Malaquais

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Archie Shepp’s Shirt Suggests

By Dominique Malaquais and Cédric Vincent

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Monumental Failures

By Dominique Malaquais

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By Jean-Christophe Lanquetin (translated by Dominique Malaquais)

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De l’art de vivre l’art

By Dominique Malaquais

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Anti-Teleology: Re-Mapping the Imag(in)ed City

By Dominique Malaquais

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That Thing We Dreamed

By Dominique Malaquais

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By Dominique Malaquais

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By Dominique Malaquais

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By Koffi Kwahulé (translated by Dominique Malaquais)

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By Dominique Malaquais

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By Dominique Malaquais

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Blood Money – A Douala Chronicle

By Dominique Malaquais

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By Dominique Malaquais

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Ground / Overground / Underground

By MOWOSO (translated by Dominique Malaquais)

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Featuring solos by Franco Luambo Makiadi, Pepe Felly Manuaku, Bansimba Baroza, Diblo Dibala, Dally Kimoko, Flamme Kapaya, Sarah Solo, Japonais Maladi and Kimbangu Solo; and commentary by Ray Lema

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PASS presents: Salim Washington, Dalisu Ndlazi, Asher Gamedze in conversation

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Gwen Ansell and Salim Washington celebrate the revolutionary life, language and hard-ass leadership of an unconventional saxophonist, composer and generous collaborator.

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The latest addition to the Chimurenganyana series

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Labour Tenants South Western Transvaal

“There’s no real vocabulary for the non-photographed of apartheid‟ – Santu Mofokeng

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The poetics of Futbol

The Touch It would have to be a bird, stilled on a […]

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Writer Pierre Crépon selects recordings illustrating his essay on the American avant-garde jazz in Paris in 1969.

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Home is where the music is

Hugh Masekela (talking to Mothobi Mutloatse) I remember we use to live […]

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OF WOUNDS, OF HANDS – live on PASS – 08 July 2021

a word/sound documentary by the Insurrections Ensemble, with an introduction by Ari Sitas

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Thursday, 24 June 2021 – 6pm

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A limited Chimurenganyana edition of Even When My Soup-Curlers Slur, I Still Keep the Take by Georgia Anne Muldrow is now available.

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RADIO MAC ON PASS – 14-21 June

Chimurenga and Hangar (Lisbon) present Radio MAC live on PASS 14-21 June 2021, 6pm.

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BLACK SUNLIGHT – A broadcast for Dambudzo Marechera on his 69th

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Imagi-nation nwar – a PASS session in Paris

From 5-9 May 2021, Chimurenga’s Pan African Space Station (PASS) will land at Lavoir Moderne Parisien in Goutte d’or, Paris, to imagine, re-examine and re-circulate sonic archives of black radicalism in the francophone world.

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A new issue of Chimurenga’s Chronic – out now. imagi-nation nwar – […]

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QAMATA PULA, an ancestral invocation

iPhupho L’ka Biko and Pan African Space Station present QAMATA PULA, an ancestral invocation collapsing past, present and future, over three days at the Chimurenga Factory

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Creative Urban Momentum: Witnessing the Black Unity Trio

In anticipation of the release of Black Unity Trios’ legendary album, Al Fatihah, Hasan Abdur-Razzaq recalls witnessing their rehearsals in the late 1960s.

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Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture) was viewed by many during the civil rights […]

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A Petition for Mongo Beti

Patrice Nganang recalls the duel between politics and the literary sphere in 1990s Yaoundé – a time when the campaign for ‘democracy’ exposed the chiasmus that is the Cameroonian intelligence, and the words of Mongo Beti ignited a movement for dissent, return and reconstruction.

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The 12th Annual Abdullah Ibrahim Festival

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Nigeria’s Superstar Men Of God

Who needs the God of the bible with his promises of trials and tribulations, crosses and paths of repentance? Yemisi Aribisala listens to the sermons, counts the money, watches the high-flying life of Nigeria’s mega-preachers and wonders.

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Live from 5pm
Friday 21 August 2020

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Abbey Lincoln’s Scream: Poetic Improvisation as a Way of Life

We are standing under a glaring spotlight screaming at the tops of our lungs, from the backs of our throats which we grind together to access black blues unwords, thymus against heart, blue in green meridian, that aquamarine plexus that water and sky correct and regulate in us.

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Exile demands contemplation because it is unavoidably real for those who experience […]

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Reproducing Festac ’77: A secret among a family of millions

Kwanele Sosibo speaks with Ntone Edjabe about the creation of, and thinking behind, the FESTAC ’77 publication.

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Calling all printmakers and paper-peoples! In collaboration with our comrades at Keleketla! […]

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MADEYOULOOK collective met with photographer Santu Mofokeng to establish the point of crossroads, where things are in motion and where things remain still

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Urbanism Beyond Architecture – African Cities as Infrastructure

Vyjayanthi Rao, in conversation with Filip de Boeck & Abdou Maliq Simone […]

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Quel Est L’Endroit Idéal

Les Brasseries du Cameroun is the country’s largest industry and dedicated to guaranteeing a steady flow of liquid amber to the vast proliferation of bars, restaurants, nightclubs and other unidentified nightspots – some still in Maquis-style hiding – that have mushroomed all over the city.

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Senegal & Festac 77

After New York in October 2019, and in the spirit of the trans-continentalism (aka Black World) of the event, we return to Dakar to celebrate the release of Chimurenga’s new publication on FESTAC ’77 – in collaboration with RAW Material Company.

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Kinshasa Chronicles is a richly textured encounter featuring seventy artists, most of whom belong to a very young generation, telling tales of one of the world’s most vibrant creative hubs.

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Which “they”? Which “one”? What “secrets” are you talking about? Oh! Come on! Cinema taught us long ago that there is always a secret in a laboratory and that evil-minded people are planning to get hold of it.

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Timbuktu: An Old African Saying

“The gazelle for me symbolises beauty and grace,” Sissako told the Bloomington audience. Then, he added, “Beauty will save the world,”

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“We should take out that word ‘national’ and reconstruct that word ‘theatre’….

Perfect, perfect, you have solved the problem for me, we have deconstructed the idea of National Theatre. We have taken the national and thrown it in the dust bin.

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Crossroads Republic

The Nigerian superstar bandleader Fela Anikulapo-Kuti hosted a covert summit meeting in the summer of 1977.

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New Cartographies

Since its launch in 2011, every edition of The Chronic has engaged with this question:  […]

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From January 15 to February 12 1977, thousands of artists, writers, musicians, […]

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PASS is going to Australia!

From 11 -13 April, as part of an exhibition hosted by Monash […]

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Neo Muyanga – The Sex For Money No Power Mixtape

PASS founder, a composer and musician Neo Muyanga highlights the currents and […]

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Revisit moments from the PASS landing in Amsterdam

From 11 -15 December 2016, the Pan African Space Station transmitted live […]

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Udaba with Kgafela oa Mogogodi – LIVE at Centre for the Book, Cape Town (2009)

On 1 October 2009, Pan African Space Station hosted Udaba at The […]

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Denderah Rising with Georgia Anne Muldrow + Thandi Ntuli Quartet + The Monkey Nuts

  In April 2018, PASS welcomed back Georgia Anne Muldrow and her […]

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Festac ’77 – a faction by Akin Adesokan

Was Festac 77 curated by Esu Elegba? Akin Adesokan’s faction explores art […]

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BLACKOUT x 7 Octobre

Native Maqari and Keziah Jones Villa Medici channel Fela take on on […]

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10 Paragraphs of Music Criticism

Kodwo Eshun discusses selected paragraphs of music criticism, taking in Kim Gordon’s […]

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From 9 – 12 November, the Pan African Space Station (PASS) landed […]

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Searching for Rotimi- A Letter From London

Rotimi Fani-Kayode died 29 years ago (21 December 1989), in exile, after […]

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Dislocations in the Congolese World of Sound

“Dislocation” is how Congolese rumba historians describe the incessant splinterings that are […]

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Fred Moten and Saidiya Hartman sit down to talk about the temporal […]

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They Won’t Go When I Go

A Manifesto/ Meditation on State of Black Archives in America and throughout the Diaspora by Harmony Holiday

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Fred Moten and Saidiya Hartman sit down to talk about the temporal […]

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The Nigerian Art of Patronage

Deji Toye looks at the legacy of arts funding in Nigeria and […]

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And now for an important travel advisory. Planning to visit Johannesburg or […]

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For over a decade, the man born as Elliot Josephs terrorised Cape […]

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Civil Lines

An Essay by Achal Prabhala At some point in the 1980s – […]

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an essay by Vivek Narayanan [Note: while preparing this piece, I benefited greatly […]

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The Emperor of Kinshasa’s Street Comics

by Nancy Rose Hunt Beginning nearly fifty years ago, in 1968, Kinshasa […]

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Spear: Canada’s Truth and Soul Magazine

by Peter James Hudson November 2010 Spear: Canada’s Truth and Soul Magazine launched […]

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Staffriding the Frontline

An Essay by Lesego RampolokengMay 2008 Down from a couple years beyond […]

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An Essay by Ivan VladislavićMarch 2008 I joined Ravan Press as a […]

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Of “Brothers with Perfect Timing”

An Essay by Mike Abraham2008 Germiston station has a very long platform. […]

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Theatre du pouvoir AT the louvre – a letter from Paris

Kibafika Kakudji On 29 January 2018, the day after I turned 40, […]

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Ranga Mberi travels back in musical time to the 1980s and 1990s, […]

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A CONVERSATION WITH NORA CHIPAUMIRE Born in Mutare, Zimbabwe, and based in New […]

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The history of reggae in Zimbabwe echoes far beyond Bob Marley’s historic […]

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THE WAY I SEE IT – National Heroes Acre I

Bongani Kona Who or what haunts you? Do recurrences draw you back […]

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Panashe Chigumadzi travels to the rural Zimbabwe of her ancestors, onto land […]

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Sumesh Sharma traces the circuitous roots of Afro-Asiatic history, from the world’s […]

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by Clapperton Chakanetsa Mavhunga Since the 1970s, Zimbabweans have used the term […]

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Zidane’s Melancholy

Zidane watched the Berlin sky, not thinking of anything, a white sky […]

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Zinedine Zidane and and the event of the secret

Grant Farred produces a Derridean reading of Zidane’s world-stopping head butt.

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To Defend and to Question

Zinedine Zidane has described him as “the greatest footballer of all” and […]

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Zidane, a 21st century portrait

Douglas Gordon and Philippe Parenno’s ambitious 2006 cinematic collaboration, Zidane, a 21st […]

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Keorapetse Kgositsile on Johnny Dyani

Jazz was crucial to South African poet Keorapetse Kgositsile‘s most influential idea: […]

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Staffriding the Frontline – An Essay by Lesego Rampolokeng

May 2008 Down from a couple years beyond 30/30. it was the […]

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Culture And Resistance In South Africa

by Keorapetse Kgositsile Keynote address from the Culture and Resistance Symposium (1982) […]

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Crossing Borders Without Leaving

by Keorapetse Kgositsile Returning home, even though just for a short visit, […]

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Le sexe de Matonge

Sony Labou Tansi À Ngalamulume, le Kinois « Nazalaka moluba. Et je […]

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Who Killed Kabila?

The Pan African Space Station/Chimurenga Library at La Colonie, Paris 13 December […]

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Down the footpath

Emmanuel Iduma in conversation with photographer Akinbode Akinbiyi On a number of […]

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Felasophy Through the Years: Fond Recollections of Fela Kuti

by Tunde Giwa Growing up in post civil-war Kaduna, Northern Nigeria, in […]

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De l’art de vivre l’art

Dominique Malaquais Goddy Leye nous a quittés. C’était le 19 février 2011, […]

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La Puissance De Werewere Liking

One cannot avoid that vocabulary of hyper-inflation of much contemporary cultural or […]

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The Divine World of Making Things with My Hands

A conversation with Jackie Karuti by Bongani Kona Jackie Karuti (1987) is […]

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A Layered Way of Working

Helen Teede is a Zimbabwean painter based in Harare. She left the […]

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Some African Cultural Concepts By Steve Biko

  This is a paper given by Steve at a conference called […]

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The Definition Of Black Consciousness by Bantu Stephen Biko

It seeks to infuse the black community with a new-found pride in themselves, their efforts, their value systems, their culture, their religion and their outlook to life.

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Yahoo Boy No Laptop

Dami Ajayi celebrates the eclectic sound and success of Olamide, arguably Nigeria’s […]

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The New Thing: Part II*

The pretence of cultural hubs in the “world class” metropolis of Johannesburg […]

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Shoki Master

By Oris Aigbokhaevbolo   Like any story worth telling, this one involves […]

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Blame Me On History

Atiyyah Khan is a writer, researcher and arts journalist based in Cape […]

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No Congo, No Technology

Post-disciplinary artist, Maurice Mbikayi, was born in Kinshasa, in 1974. His country […]

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Dear President Museveni

By Isaac Otidi Amuke I have debated about writing this for days, in […]

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